Nottwil, Switzerland
Nottwil, Switzerland

Time filter

Source Type

Perret C.,Institute of Sports Medicine | Stoffel-Kurt N.,ETH Zurich
Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To compare the nutritional intake of patients with acute and chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Setting: Spinal cord unit. Methods: Twelve in-house patients of a spinal cord unit with acute SCI and paralysis duration of 5.3 ± 2.5 months (acute group) were compared with 12 subjects with chronic SCI (chronic group) with lesion duration of 55.5 ± 21.0 months. All subjects recorded their nutritional intake for 7 days, which was analyzed for intake of energy, proteins, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral nutrients, fluid, and dietary fiber. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and total body fat were also determined. Results: The chronic group showed a significantly higher total body fat content compared to the acute group (19.4 ± 3.8 vs. 15.7 ± 4.3%). All other parameters were not significantly different between groups. Both groups ingested excessive fat and insufficient amounts of carbohydrates compared with common nutritional recommendations. Low intakes of vitamins C, D, E, biotin, folic acid, as well as potassium and iron were found. Conclusions: No differences were found in the nutritional intakes of two comparable groups of subjects with acute and chronic SCI. Independent of lesion duration, subjects with SCI showed considerable deviations from the general accepted nutritional recommendations concerning macro- and micronutrients intake. Professional nutritional education for persons with SCI should start as soon as possible after injury to prevent nutrition-related secondary complications like cardiovascular diseases. Periodic determinations of body fat content and REE combined with a physical activity program might be helpful as well. © The Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals, Inc. 2011.


Goosey-Tolfrey V.,Loughborough University | Foden E.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Perret C.,Institute of Sports Medicine | Degens H.,Manchester Metropolitan University
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: There is considerable evidence that respiratory muscle training improves pulmonary function, quality of life and exercise performance in healthy athletic populations. The benefits for wheelchair athletes are less well understood. Therefore, in the present study, influence of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory function and repetitive propulsive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players was examined. Methods: Using a placebo-controlled design, 16 wheelchair athletes were divided to an experimental (IMT; n = 8) or placebo (sham-IMT; n=8) group based on selective grouping criteria. 30 dynamic breaths were performed by the IMT group twice daily at a resistance equivalent to 50% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and 60 slow breaths were performed by the sham-IMT group once a day at 15% MIP for a period of 6 weeks. Results: In the IMT group, both MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (17% and 23%, respectively; p(≤0.03) were improved. Similar improvements were noted for the sham-IMT group with 23% and 33% from baseline for MIP and maximum expiratory pressure, respectively (p≤0.03). There were no significant changes in pulmonary function at rest and any of the performance parameters associated with the repetitive sprint test (sprint and recovery times, peak heart rate and peak blood lactate concentration). Reported experiences of using the IMT training device suggested "less breathlessness" and "less tightness in the chest during the training". Conclusions: Although there was no improvement in sprint performance, an improved respiratory muscle function and quality of life were reported by participants in both the IMT and sham-IMT groups.


Perret C.,Institute of Sports Medicine
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

Purpose: Elite-adapted sports performance has considerably improved over the last decades and winning or losing races at Paralympic Games is often a matter of a split second. In other words, every single detail counts, which underlines the necessity of optimizing training interventions and equipment for athletes in order to achieve top-class performance. However, to date, studies which include Paralympic elite athletes are scarce. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify potential strategies and interventions in order to optimize elite-adapted wheelchair sports performance, whereas the focus lay on respiratory muscle training (RMT), cooling (CI) and nutritional interventions (NI) as well as on individual equipment adaptations (IEA). Results: The total number of studies identified for the final analysis was six for RMT, two for CI, three for NI and seven for IEA, respectively. Results point predominantly towards performance enhancing benefits for CI and IEA, whereas NI and RMT provided inhomogenous findings. Conclusions: In comparison to the able-bodied population, research in the field of Paralympic elite sport is scarce. CI and IEA seem to have significant performance enhancing benefits, whereas NI and RMT revealed controversial findings. However, due to the limited number of elite athletes with a spinal cord injury available to participate in scientific studies, general conclusions are difficult to make at this stage and in daily practice recommendations are still given mainly on an individual basis or based on personal experiences of coaches, athletes and scientists.Implications for RehabilitatonBased on the knowledge gained in elite sports, wheelchair equipment could be optimized also for daily use.Elite sports performance could inspire wheelchair users to achieve their personal fitness goals. © 2015 Taylor & Francis


Labruyere R.,ETH Zurich | Perret C.,Institute of Sports Medicine
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

The aim was to investigate whether the level of lactic acidosis in the first part of a heart rate-based lactate minimum test affects the lactate minimum heart rate and performance. We tested 15 men (age: 31±6 years, height: 179±6cm, body mass: 75.6±7.6kg and VO 2peak 50.3±10.0ml·min -1·kg -1). They all completed 2 lactate minimum tests following 2 different protocols during the first part of the test, i.e., i) a maximal test until exhaustion to provoke extensive lactacidaemia and ii) a submaximal test abandoned 3 stages earlier than the maximal test to provoke significantly lower but still considerable lactacidaemia. The second part of the lactate minimum test was identical for both runs. It consisted of a heart rate-based incremental test to determine the lactate minimum and the corresponding lactate minimum heart rate and performance. Results showed a significantly higher maximal blood lactate concentration at the end of the maximal test compared to the submaximal test (9.7±2.7 vs. 6.0±2.0mmol·l -1, P<0.001). Also mean lactate minimum heart rate (160±12 vs. 144±13bpm, P<0.001) and performance (200±40 vs. 170±35W, P<0.001) were significantly higher after the maximal test compared to the submaximal test. We conclude that the first part of the heart rate-based lactate minimum test needs to be performed until exhaustion to receive reliable and meaningful results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.


Flueck J.L.,ETH Zurich | Mettler S.,ETH Zurich | Perret C.,Institute of Sports Medicine
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine and/or sodium citrate have an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes. A placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over and double-blind study design was conducted with the four treatments placebo, caffeine, sodium citrate and the combination of caffeine and sodium citrate. Nine healthy, elite wheelchair-racing athletes (median: [min; max] age: 28 y [23; 54]; height: 173 cm [165; 188]; weight: 62.9 kg [48.9; 68.4], category T53/54) completed the study. All athletes were national team members, including several Paralympic Games, World and European Championship medalists. The athletes performed a 1,500-m time trial four times on a wheelchair training roller. Time to complete 1,500-m, pH, bicarbonate and sodium concentration as well as lactate concentration were measured. The time to complete 1,500-m was not significantly different between the four treatments (placebo: 170.6 s [141.7; 232.0]; caffeine: 179.5 s [134.8; 239.6]; sodium citrate: 178.3 s [136.4; 247.1]; combination: 177.6 s [136.1; 256.2]). However, pH and bicarbonate concentrations were significantly increased with sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo. Moreover, maximal lactate concentrations were significantly higher in the caffeine and the combination treatment compared with placebo. The supplementation with sodium citrate and/or caffeine did not provide an ergogenic effect on the 1,500-m exercise performance in wheelchair elite athletes. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.


De Silva A.,University of Colombo | Samarasinghe Y.,University of Colombo | Senanayake D.,Institute of Sports Medicine | Lanerolle P.,University of Colombo
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2010

Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. © 2010 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Lohrer H.,Institute of Sports Medicine | Nauck T.,Institute of Sports Medicine
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective In contrast to posterior tibial tendon lesions, dislocations of the posterior tibial tendon are thought to be 'extremely rare'. Diagnostic criteria for this condition have not yet been established. Methods A systematic literature review revealed 61 published cases with posterior tibial tendon dislocation in 36 reports, including eight (12 patients) in French and five (7 patients) in German. We add one more case, which was complicated by a longitudinal tibial tendon tear and a lateral talar dome osteochondral lesion. Fiftynine cases were descriptively analysed regarding initial injury, subjective symptoms, clinical presentation and findings on different imaging modalities. Treatment and outcome were additionally evaluated. Results 58.5% of the initial injuries were induced by sport. Initially most cases were misdiagnosed (53.1%). 35.6% of the patients felt a recurrent snapping phenomenon at the medial ankle. Physical examination exhibited a cord-like structure over the medial malleolus in 58.6%, and a posterior tibial tendon (sub) luxation could be provocated in 54.2%. MRI, ultrasound and plain radiography (medial malleolar chip fracture) detected specific findings in 75.0%, 66.7% and 14.7%, respectively. Surgery was done in 83.1% of the patients using varying techniques. The authors judged the treatment result as excellent or asymptomatic in 80%, as good in 12% and as fair or moderate in 8% of the patients. Conclusions Posterior tibial tendon dislocation occurs more frequently than was previously thought. Misdiagnosis can be avoided, if the surgeon is aware of the condition and combines findings from history, physical investigation and imaging modalities.


News Article | December 22, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

EVANSTON, Ill. --- The secret to reliably diagnosing concussions lies in the brain's ability to process sound, according to a new study by researchers from Northwestern University's Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory. Widely considered a crisis in professional sports and youth athletic programs, sports-related concussions have had devastating neurological, physical, social and emotional consequences for millions of athletes. Still, no single test has been developed to reliably and objectively diagnose concussions. The groundbreaking research, to be published Dec. 22 in the journal Nature, Scientific Reports, has found a biological marker in the auditory system that could take the ambiguity and controversy out of diagnosing concussions and tracking recovery. "This biomarker could take the guesswork out of concussion diagnosis and management," said lead author Nina Kraus, the Hugh Knowles Professor in the School of Communication and director of the Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory. "Our hope is this discovery will enable clinicians, parents and coaches to better manage athlete health, because playing sports is one of the best things you can do." By observing research subjects' brain activity as they were exposed to auditory stimuli, Kraus and her team discovered a distinct pattern in the auditory response of children who suffered concussions compared to children who had not. Kraus and colleagues placed three simple sensors on children's heads to measure the frequency following response, which is the brain's automatic electric reaction to sound. With this measure they successfully identified 90 percent of children with concussions and 95 percent of children in the control group who did not have concussions. Children who sustained concussions had on average a 35 percent smaller neural response to pitch, allowing the scientists to devise a reliable signature neural profile. As the children recovered from their head injuries, their ability to process pitch returned to normal. "Making sense of sound requires the brain to perform some of the most computationally complex jobs it is capable of, which is why it is not surprising that a blow to the head would disrupt this delicate machinery," Kraus said. What was surprising, Kraus said, was the specificity of the findings. "This isn't a global disruption to sound processing," she said. "It's more like turning down a single knob on a mixing board." Kraus is a biologist who studies the auditory system, which is at the nexus of our cognitive, sensory and limbic systems. She described the research findings -- based on a small study of 40 children being treated for concussion and a control group -- as a major first step. Dr. Cynthia LaBella, the director of the Institute of Sports Medicine at the Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago and professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, is Kraus' partner in the research. "Our ambition is to produce a reliable, objective, portable, user-friendly, readily available and affordable platform to diagnose concussion," Kraus said. Concussions, a type of mild traumatic brain injury, are the result of a direct or indirect blow to the head that causes the brain to be jostled within the skull. But there is little relation between the force of an impact and the potential for injury -- two athletes can suffer similar hits but experience vastly different outcomes. "With this new biomarker, we are measuring the brain's default state for processing sound and how that has changed as a result of a head injury," Kraus said. "This is something patients cannot misreport, you cannot fake it or will your brain to perform better or worse." See demonstration of the Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory's "biological approach" at http://www. .


News Article | December 27, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

The secret to reliably diagnosing concussions lies in the brain's ability to process sound, according to a new study by researchers from Northwestern University's Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory. Widely considered a crisis in professional sports and youth athletic programs, sports-related concussions have had devastating neurological, physical, social and emotional consequences for millions of athletes. Still, no single test has been developed to reliably and objectively diagnose concussions. The groundbreaking research, to be published Dec. 22 in the journal Nature, Scientific Reports, has found a biological marker in the auditory system that could take the ambiguity and controversy out of diagnosing concussions and tracking recovery. "This biomarker could take the guesswork out of concussion diagnosis and management," said lead author Nina Kraus, the Hugh Knowles Professor in the School of Communication and director of the Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory. "Our hope is this discovery will enable clinicians, parents and coaches to better manage athlete health, because playing sports is one of the best things you can do." By observing research subjects' brain activity as they were exposed to auditory stimuli, Kraus and her team discovered a distinct pattern in the auditory response of children who suffered concussions compared to children who had not. Kraus and colleagues placed three simple sensors on children's heads to measure the frequency following response, which is the brain's automatic electric reaction to sound. With this measure they successfully identified 90 percent of children with concussions and 95 percent of children in the control group who did not have concussions. Children who sustained concussions had on average a 35 percent smaller neural response to pitch, allowing the scientists to devise a reliable signature neural profile. As the children recovered from their head injuries, their ability to process pitch returned to normal. "Making sense of sound requires the brain to perform some of the most computationally complex jobs it is capable of, which is why it is not surprising that a blow to the head would disrupt this delicate machinery," Kraus said. What was surprising, Kraus said, was the specificity of the findings. "This isn't a global disruption to sound processing," she said. "It's more like turning down a single knob on a mixing board." Kraus is a biologist who studies the auditory system, which is at the nexus of our cognitive, sensory and limbic systems. She described the research findings -- based on a small study of 40 children being treated for concussion and a control group -- as a major first step. Dr. Cynthia LaBella, the director of the Institute of Sports Medicine at the Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago and professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, is Kraus' partner in the research. "Our ambition is to produce a reliable, objective, portable, user-friendly, readily available and affordable platform to diagnose concussion," Kraus said. Concussions, a type of mild traumatic brain injury, are the result of a direct or indirect blow to the head that causes the brain to be jostled within the skull. But there is little relation between the force of an impact and the potential for injury -- two athletes can suffer similar hits but experience vastly different outcomes. "With this new biomarker, we are measuring the brain's default state for processing sound and how that has changed as a result of a head injury," Kraus said. "This is something patients cannot misreport, you cannot fake it or will your brain to perform better or worse."


News Article | December 22, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

The secret to reliably diagnosing concussions lies in the brain's ability to process sound, according to a new study by researchers from Northwestern University's Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory. Widely considered a crisis in professional sports and youth athletic programs, sports-related concussions have had devastating neurological, physical, social and emotional consequences for millions of athletes. Still, no single test has been developed to reliably and objectively diagnose concussions. The groundbreaking research, to be published Dec. 22 in the journal Nature, Scientific Reports, has found a biological marker in the auditory system that could take the ambiguity and controversy out of diagnosing concussions and tracking recovery. "This biomarker could take the guesswork out of concussion diagnosis and management," said lead author Nina Kraus, the Hugh Knowles Professor in the School of Communication and director of the Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory. "Our hope is this discovery will enable clinicians, parents and coaches to better manage athlete health, because playing sports is one of the best things you can do." By observing research subjects' brain activity as they were exposed to auditory stimuli, Kraus and her team discovered a distinct pattern in the auditory response of children who suffered concussions compared to children who had not. Kraus and colleagues placed three simple sensors on children's heads to measure the frequency following response, which is the brain's automatic electric reaction to sound. With this measure they successfully identified 90 percent of children with concussions and 95 percent of children in the control group who did not have concussions. Children who sustained concussions had on average a 35 percent smaller neural response to pitch, allowing the scientists to devise a reliable signature neural profile. As the children recovered from their head injuries, their ability to process pitch returned to normal. "Making sense of sound requires the brain to perform some of the most computationally complex jobs it is capable of, which is why it is not surprising that a blow to the head would disrupt this delicate machinery," Kraus said. What was surprising, Kraus said, was the specificity of the findings. "This isn't a global disruption to sound processing," she said. "It's more like turning down a single knob on a mixing board." Kraus is a biologist who studies the auditory system, which is at the nexus of our cognitive, sensory and limbic systems. She described the research findings -- based on a small study of 40 children being treated for concussion and a control group -- as a major first step. Dr. Cynthia LaBella, the director of the Institute of Sports Medicine at the Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago and professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, is Kraus' partner in the research. "Our ambition is to produce a reliable, objective, portable, user-friendly, readily available and affordable platform to diagnose concussion," Kraus said. Concussions, a type of mild traumatic brain injury, are the result of a direct or indirect blow to the head that causes the brain to be jostled within the skull. But there is little relation between the force of an impact and the potential for injury -- two athletes can suffer similar hits but experience vastly different outcomes. "With this new biomarker, we are measuring the brain's default state for processing sound and how that has changed as a result of a head injury," Kraus said. "This is something patients cannot misreport, you cannot fake it or will your brain to perform better or worse."

Loading Institute of Sports Medicine collaborators
Loading Institute of Sports Medicine collaborators