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Tobin I.,Trinity College Dublin | Juschkin L.,University College Dublin | Juschkin L.,RWTH Aachen | Sidelnikov Y.,ISAN Institute of Spectroscopy | And 4 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

We compare the extreme ultraviolet emission characteristics of tin and galinstan (atomic %: Ga: 78.35, In: 14.93, Sn: 6.72) between 10 nm and 18 nm in a laser-triggered discharge between liquid metal-coated electrodes. Over this wavelength range, the energy conversion efficiency for galinstan is approximately half that of tin, but the spectrum is less strongly peaked in the 13-15 nm region. The extreme ultraviolet source dimensions were 110 ± 25 μm diameter and 500 ± 125 μm length. The flatter spectrum, and -19 °C melting point, makes this galinstan discharge a relatively simple high radiance extreme ultraviolet light source for metrology and scientific applications. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Gielissen K.,TU Eindhoven | Sidelnikov Y.,ISAN Institute of Spectroscopy | Glushkov D.,ASML Inc | Soer W.A.,HIGH-TECH | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2010

The ion emission of a Sn-based discharge produced extreme ultraviolet producing plasma is characterized with the combined use of different time-of-flight techniques. An electrostatic ion spectrometer is employed to measure the average charge distribution of the emitted Sn ions. A dedicated Faraday cup configuration is used to measure the total ion flux from the source for different discharge energies. High-energy Sn ions emitted by the plasma with energies up to 100 keV have been identified. The number of high-energy ions increases for higher electrical input energy into the plasma while the signal associated with the expanding plasma ions does not show such dependence. The ion energy distribution for a bulk of detected ions is calculated based on the Faraday cup measurements and compared with theoretical plasma expansion dynamics. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

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