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Wang Y.,Jilin Agricultural University | Liu C.,Jilin Agricultural University | Gao J.,Jilin Agricultural University | Wang C.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

The dissipation and terminal residues of a fungicide suspension (5 % hexaconazole, 25 % kresoxim-methyl) in ginseng and soil were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). At fortified levels of 0.01, 0.02, and 0.20 mg kg−1, the recoveries of hexaconazole and kresoxim-methyl were in the range of 80.6∼94.8 % and 82.4∼98.8 % with relative standard deviation of 3.42–9.12 % and 3.19–8.58 %, respectively. The half-lives were 7.09–10.73 days in root, 6.80–7.95 days in stem, 5.31–8.49 days in leaf, and 6.30–7.97 days in soil. The terminal residues were all below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of EU and South Korea. Risk assessment results indicated that the risk of hexaconazole and kresoxim-methyl use in ginseng at dosage of 60–90 g a.i. ha−1 was negligible to humans. This work would help the government to establish the MRL and provide guidance on the proper and safe use of hexaconazole and kresoxim-methyl in ginseng. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Wang Y.,Jilin Agricultural University | Wang C.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Gao J.,Jilin Agricultural University | Liu C.,Jilin Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

Supervised field trials at two locations in 2012 and 2013 were conducted to evaluate the dissipation, terminal residues, and safety evaluation of Nativo 75 water dispersible granule (WG) (25 % trifloxystrobin + 50 % tebuconazole) on ginseng and soil following foliar application at a recommended dose 150 (50 + 100) and 1.5 times of the recommended dosage 225 (75 + 150) g a.i. ha−1. The average recoveries of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at three spiking levels in ginseng root, stem, and leaf and in soil were in the ranges of 81.0–96.8 % and 80.2–97.5 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.92–13.13 % and 4.67–8.35 %, respectively. The half-lives of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were 5.92–9.76 days and 4.59–7.53 days, respectively. The terminal residues were all below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of EU, USA, Canada, Japan, and South Korea. The food safety was evaluated by comparing the estimated daily intake (IEDI) with its acceptable daily intake (ADI). IEDI values calculated from residue data were found to be far less than the ADI on ginseng. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems induced by Nativo 75 WG use on ginseng at a dosage of 150–225 g a.i. ha−1. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Sun L.,Beihua University | Lei X.,Beihua University | Lei X.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Ma R.,Beihua University | And 5 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Effective identification of traditional medicine is essential for the development of medical industry. Identification in different parts (rhizome head, lateral root, main root and skin) of Panax quinquefolius L. root (American ginseng) is limited by the lack of efficient differentiation methods. In this study, proteomic technologies were used to establish an advanced protocol suitable for the identification of different parts of P. quinquefolius L. root. Proteins were extracted from four different parts of a 4-year old quinquefolius L. root using optimized sonication and trichloroacetic acid [TCA]/acetone precipitation methods and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Then 2-DE patterns were matched and analyzed with Image Master 2D Platinum Version 6.0 software. Eight groups of different abundant proteins and 6 specific proteins were inspected (totaling 38 protein spots in all). Further, these proteins were extensively identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. According to the biological functions, a total of 24 successfully identified proteins could be divided into 5 groups, which were stress response related proteins, energy metabolism related proteins, storage related proteins, hypothesis proteins and unknown proteins. From these results it was concluded that proteomic analysis method was an effective way to identify the different parts of quinquefolius L. root. These findings may contribute to further understanding of the physiological mechanisms of quinquefolius L. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Liu J.-X.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Liu J.-X.,Jilin Agricultural Science and Technology College | Hou W.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Dou F.-M.,Jilin Agricultural Science and Technology College | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs | Year: 2015

Objective: To study the chemical constituents of n-butanol fraction from the stems of Schisandra chinensis. Methods: The constituents were separated and purified by chromatographic technology, which structures were elucidated by physicochemical constants and spectral data analyses. Results: Fourteen chemical constituents were isolated from the n-butanol extract in the stems of S. chinensis, and the structures were identified as quercertin (1), quercertin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), rutin (4), apigenin (5), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), genistein-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), chlorogenic acid (9), ferulaic acid (10), caffeic acid (11), oleanolic acid (12), (+)-catechin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and daucosterol (14). Conclusion: The compounds 3, 7, 8, and 13 are obtained from this plant for the first time. © 2015, Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All right reserved.


Wang C.,Jilin Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Jilin Agricultural University | Gao J.,Jilin Agricultural University | Xu Y.,Jilin Agricultural University | Cui L.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

Two-year field trials were performed at two experimental sites to investigate dissipation and terminal residues of propamocarb in ginseng root, stem, leaf, and soil by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Mean recoveries ranged from 80.5 to 95.6 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.5-9.1 % at fortified levels of 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg-1. The half-lives of propamocarb were 5.00-11.36 days in root, 5.07-11.46 days in stem, 6.83-11.31 days in leaf and 6.44-8.43 days in soil. The terminal residues of propamocarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of EU (0.20 mg kg-1) and South Korea (0.50 mg kg-1 in fresh ginseng and 1.0 mg kg-1 in dried ginseng) over 28 days after last spraying at recommended dosage. The results provide a quantitative basis for establishing the MRL and give a suggestion of safe and reasonable use of propamocarb in ginseng. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.


Lei X.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Wang Y.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Li C.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Zhang C.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | And 3 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Low-temperature acclimation is one of the main methods of improving the cryopreservation of anther callus of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.), particularly the callus survival rate. To investigate the molecular adaptation mechanisms of callus to low temperature, calli were induced from anthers and cultured at optimal temperature (25°C) for 15 d. Half of the calli were transferred to conditioned petri dishes stored at 4°C for different days. The optimal treatment time at 4°C was estimated based on the triphenyltetrazolium chloride value and survival rate of callus. Proteomic analysis showed that the abundance of 43 protein spots significantly changed (p < 0.5) under 4°C acclimation, and they were identified using mass spectrometry. The proteins were found to be involved in stress response and defense, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and protein biogenesis and degradation, molecular chaperone, electron transport coupled with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and cellular processes as well as nucleotide metabolism. The results suggested that the enhancement of stress response, organic metabolism, ATP synthesis, and molecular chaperoning played important roles in the adaptation of ginseng anther callus to low temperature. © Crop Science Society of America.


Leng X.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Leng X.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant science | Li Z.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Li Z.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant science | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (105.0 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Shao X.Q.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Yan X.J.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Luo G.L.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | Zhang H.L.,Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science | And 9 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2011

An outbreak of rabies affected domestic raccoon dogs on an animal farm in Inner Mongolia, China in 2007. A study was conducted to characterize the aetiological agent and clarify the origin of the rabies virus. Brain tissues were obtained from five rabid raccoon dogs. Viral nucleoprotein antigen was detected in the brain tissues and five rabies viruses were isolated from these rabid animals. Phylogenetic analysis of the N and G gene sequences showed that these isolates were closely related to Arctic-like rabies viruses isolated from the far-eastern region of Russia and South Korea, but distinct from the rabies viruses that are widely distributed in endemic areas in China. Epidemiological data suggested that the likely source of infection was from one wild raccoon dog that was captured and placed in the same type of pen used for domestic raccoon dogs. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2010.


PubMed | Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI | Year: 2012

Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality in pigs of all ages and has severely affected the pork industry of China in the last few years. An attenuated HP-PRRSV strain, TJM, was obtained by passaging HP-PRRSV strain TJ on MARC-145 cells for 92 passages. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- and antibody-free pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with TJM (10(5.0) 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID(50)]) and challenged at 28, 60, 120, and 180 days postimmunization (dpi). The results showed that 5/5, 5/5, 5/5, and 4/5 immunized pigs were protected from the lethal challenge and did not develop fever and clinical diseases at each challenge, respectively. Compared to control pigs, vaccinated pigs showed much milder pathological lesions and gained significantly more weight (P < 0.01). Sequence analysis of different passages of strain TJ showed that the attenuation resulted in a deletion of a continuous 120 amino acids (aa), in addition to the discontinuous 30-aa deletion in the nsp2 region. The analysis also demonstrated that the 120-aa deletion was genetically stable in vivo. These results suggested that HP-PRRSV TJM was efficacious against a lethal challenge with a virulent HP-PRRSV strain, and effective protection could last at least 4 months. Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV.


PubMed | Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2012

A live-attenuated highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) virus (HP-PRRSV) TJM vaccine strain was derived from the HP-PRRSV TJ strain by passage 92 times in the African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line Marc-145. We found that the virulence of the TJ strain to piglets was decreased greatly from passage 19. To identify mutations associated with attenuation of the TJM vaccine strain, we determined the nucleotide changes that arose during Marc-145 passage of the HP-PRRSV TJ virus. The TJM strain contains a 360 nucleotide (120 amino acids) deletion and a 118 nucleotide mutation that resulted in 48 amino acid changes. Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequences of intermediate passage-level viruses F19, F46 and F78 showed that 31 (64.6%) of the 48 amino acid mutations occurred in F19, 7 (14.6%) occurred in F46, 7 (14.6%) occurred in F78 and 3 (6.3%) occurred in F92. The 120 amino acid deletion occurred from F19 to TJM. Therefore, we hypothesized that the 31 amino acid mutations distributed in nsp1, nsp2-nsp5, nsp7, nsp9, nsp10, GP4 and GP5 and the continuous 120 amino acid deletion in the nsp2 region from F19 provide a strong potential molecular basis for the observed attenuated phenotype.

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