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Kalt W.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Liu Y.,Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science | McDonald J.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Vinqvist-Tymchuk M.R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Fillmore S.A.E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

LC-MS/MS revealed that metabolites of anthocyanins (Acn) were abundant in human urine (n = 17) even after 5 days with no dietary Acn. After intake of 250 mL of blueberry juice, parent Acn were 4% and Acn metabolites were 96% of the total urinary Acn for the following 24 h. Multiple reaction monitoring revealed 226 combinations of mass transition × retention times for known Acn and predicted Acn metabolites. These were dominated by aglycones, especially aglycone glucuronides. The diversity of Acn metabolites could include positional isomers of Acn conjugates and chalcones. The persistence of Acn metabolites suggested enterohepatic recycling leading to prolonged residence time. The prevalence of Acn metabolites based on pelargonidin, which is not present in blueberry juice, may reflect ongoing dehydroxylation and demethylation of other Acn via xenobiotic and colonic bacterial action. The results suggest that exposure to Acn-based flavonoid moieties is substantially greater than suggested by earlier research. © Published 2014 by the American Chemical Society.


Wang W.,Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science | Wang W.,Sinovet Beijing Biotechnology Co. | Shi X.,Sinovet Beijing Biotechnology Co. | Chen C.,Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science | And 2 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2014

In January 2013, several clinical signs of cattle with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge, and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named SD1301 was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 12258nt in length and contains a 5′UTR, one open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,897 amino acids and a 3′UTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5′UTR, Npro, E1 and E2 gene demonstrated the virus belonged to BVDV 2b, and genetically related to the BVDV strain Hokudai-Lab/09 from Japan in 2010. This bovine viral diarrhea virus displays a unique genetic signature with 27-nucleotide deletion in the 5′UTR, which is similar to the bovine viral diarrhea virus C413 (AF002227). This was the first confirmed isolation of ncp BVDV2b circulating in bovine herd of China. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Wang W.,Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science | Wang W.,Sinovet Beijing Biotechnology Co. | Shi X.,Sinovet Beijing Biotechnology Co. | Wu Y.,Sinovet Beijing Biotechnology Co. | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology | Year: 2014

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 1b strains are the predominant subgenotypes in China. Because of the genetic and antigenic variability among different BVDV strains, a vaccine effective in one region may fail to protect against infections caused by different virus strains in another region. No BVDV vaccine developed with the predominant strains in China are available. In this study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese BVDV 1a NM01 vaccine strain was evaluated by challenging with a Chinese BVDV 1b JL strain. Ten 2-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine strain and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. The average titer of neutralization antibody to BVDV 1a and BVDV 1b of immunized calves reached 1:410 and 1:96, respectively, at 21 days post the second vaccination. Twenty-one days post the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with strain JL. The clinical signs, such as the temperature and leukopenia of the immunized calves and viral shedding, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves after challenging with the virulent BVDV 1b strain, indicating that the BVDV 1a vaccine strain elicited efficacious protection against the endemic BVDV 1b strain in China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an inactivated BVDV vaccine which demonstrated effective cross-protection against BVDV type 1b infection in China. © 2014.


Wang W.,Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science | Wang W.,Sinovet Beijing Biotechnology Co. | Shi X.,Sinovet Beijing Biotechnology Co. | Tong Q.,Sinovet Beijing Biotechnology Co. | And 5 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important pathogens in cattle. Previously, BVDV sub-genotypes of 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1 m were detected in China. However, isolation of BVDV type 1a from cattle has not been reported in China. In 2010, twenty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from the cattle suspected BVDV infection in Henan province, China. A BVDV isolate was isolated using cell culture, and the pathogenesis of the virus isolate was studied. Methods. Virus isolation was performed on MDBK cells. The virus identification was conducted by RT-PCR, neutralization test and immunofluorescence assay. In order to determine the genotype of the newly isolated virus, the 5′ un-translated region (5′UTR) of the virus isolate was cloned, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. To evaluate the virulence of the virus isolate, four BVDV sero-negative calves were intranasally inoculated with the virus suspension. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for changes in white blood cell counts, and tissue samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Results: A new isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), named HN01, was isolated from the nasal swabs using MDBK cell culture. The HN01 strain caused cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cell cultures after two passages. The virus specifically reacted to BVDV1-specific monoclonal antibody in an immunofluorescence assay. A fragment of 288 bp of genome from this isolate was amplified by the RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5′UTR indicated that the virus was BVDV 1a. In the pathogenesis study, four calves experimentally infected with the BVDV strain developed depression, cough and other clinical signs. Calves showed high temperature over 40°C, and white blood cell counts dropped more than 40%. Conclusions: A new subgenotype 1a strain of BVDV was firstly isolated from dairy cattle in China. The experimental infection showed that the virus was moderate pathogenic to cattle and can be used as a BVDV challenge virus to evaluate the efficacy of BVDV vaccines in the target animals. © 2014 Wang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Tong T.,Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science | Yi L.,Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science | Cheng S.,Institute of Special Economic Animal and Plant Science
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2015

In January 2013, several clinical signs of Chinese raccoon dog1 with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named CDV-RD-JL was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 13590nt in length and contains 6 genes including 3' leader sequence,the nucleocapsid gene (N), the phosphoprotein gene (P), the matrix protein gene (M), the fusion protein gene (F), Hemagglutinin protein gene (H), the large protein gene (L), 5' trailer sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of N, P, H and F gene demonstrated the virus belonged to Asia-1 and genetically related to the CDV strains CYN07-hV and CDV SY from China in 2010. This was the first confirmed isolation of CDV circulating in Chinese raccoon dogs. © 2015 Academic Journals Inc.

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