Institute of Special Animal and Plant science

Jilin, China

Institute of Special Animal and Plant science

Jilin, China
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Wang Y.,Jilin Agricultural University | Gao J.,Jilin Agricultural University | Yang L.N.,Jilin Agricultural University | Wang X.M.,Jilin Agricultural University | Wang C.W.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Philodendron oxycardium, a popular foliage plant in the Araceae, is widely cultivated indoors in China as a potted ornamental plant. In February 2015, a stem necrosis on P. oxycardium was observed in a flower-production facility in Changchun City (125.40° E; 43.81° N), Jilin Province, China. Water-soaked pinpoint lesions at the base of stems were observed, and the diseased stems were slowly girdled and shrank. Most of infected plants collapsed and died. A gray-white mold developed at the base of affected stems. The incidence was about 5 to 100%. Symptomatic tissues were soaked in 70% ethanol for 30 s, sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 for 1 min, rinsed three times with sterilized water, dried, and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 4 to 5 days at 25°C, and a 12-h photoperiod. Fungal colonies were obtained from affected tissues and five single-spore isolates were selected. On PDA, single-spore cultures produced abundant white aerial mycelium and dark magenta pigments in the agar, in the middle of colonies. On carnation leaf agar (CLA) medium, macroconidia were slightly curved with a foot-shaped basal cell and a tapered apical cell, with 3 to 5 septa, and measured 17.9 to 34.4 × 3.3 to 6.9 (mean 24.1 × 4.1) µm (n = 50); microconidia were elliptic with 0 to 1 septa, and measured 6.0 to 11.5 × 2.9 to 5.4 (mean 8.8 × 3.9) µm (n = 50); chlamydospores usually formed in chains. The morphological characteristics of five isolates were consistent with those of Fusarium oxysporum (Leslie and Summerell 2006). To further identify the pathogen, the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) (Fogliata et al. 2013), translation elongation factor (TEF-1α) gene, and beta-tubulin (TUB2) gene regions (Wang et al. 2014) were amplified using the paired primers ITS4/ITS5, EF61/EF62, and Bt61/Bt62, respectively, and sequences were deposited in GenBank (ITS: 538 bp, GenBank Accession No. KR072625; TEF61α: 687 bp, KR072627; and TUB2: 1275 bp, KR072629). The sequences shared 100% similarity with F. oxysporum for the ITS (JN116678 and 29 others), TEF-1α (AF008487, JQ965428, JQ965434, JQ965436, and KP025958), and TUB2 (JQ965473 and KC869334) in the NCBI nucleotide database, respectively. The sequences of ITS, TEF-1α, and TUB2 showed 95.7%, 100%, and 91.58% similarity to Fusarium sp. Isolate ID FD_01692, F. oxysporum FD_00619, and Fusarium sp. FD_01831 in the Fusarium-ID database (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org), respectively. The pathogenicity test was performed by injecting 100 μl of a conidial suspension (1×106 conidia/ml) into each inoculated stem wounded with a sterilized needle. Five plants of P. oxycardium (cv. Lvpingguo) were inoculated with each single-spore isolate. Five plants were treated with sterilized water and used as controls. All the plants were maintained at 25°C and 90% relative humidity in a greenhouse. The pathogenicity test was conducted three times. Within 10 days, all plants inoculated with each isolate developed symptoms similar to those observed on naturally affected plants, but no symptoms were observed on the control plants. The fungus was successfully reisolated on PDA and exhibited morphological characteristics identical to F. oxysporum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum as causal agent of stem rot on P. oxycardium in China, as well as in the world. This new disease may seriously affect the ornamental and economic value of P. oxycardium. © 2016, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.


Wang C.W.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | Wang C.W.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Ai J.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | Qin H.Y.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | And 7 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) is a promising fruit species in the family Actinidiaceae with increasing commercial production worldwide (Latocha et al. 2014). During April and May of 2015, with high humidity and cool temperature conditions, typical symptoms of Sclerotinia rot with about 10% incidence were observed on 2-year-old seedlings in Zuojia, Jilin Province, China. Symptoms started as black-brown watery soft rot, quickly expanded and girdled on the basal stems, and at the same time the leaves became yellow and wilted. Finally, the plants wilted and died. White mycelium and occasionally irregular black sclerotia (1.2 to 4.5 mm in diameter) were also observed on the rotted basal stem and roots of plants. Sclerotia were collected from symptomatic tissue, surface-disinfested with 70% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% HgCl2 for 1 min, triple rinsed with sterile water, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated 4 to 5 days at 20°C. Within 2 to 4 days, white mycelia were pulled from the sclerotium surface and four isolates were recovered and transferred to PDA. Colonies produced masses of white cottony aerial mycelium, with small white sclerotial primordia near the margin of colonies in a uniform distribution. The sclerotia became mature, black, spherical to subspherical, elongated or fused to form irregular shapes within 7 to 10 days of incubation. Based on these morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as Sclerotinia nivalis (Fan et al. 2012; Saito 1997). To confirm identity, the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (White et al. 1990) and beta-tubulin (TUB2) gene (White et al. 1990) were amplified with primers ITS4 and ITS5, Bt2a and Bt2b, respectively. The sequences of ITS (GenBank Nos. KT003215 to KT003218) and TUB2 (KT023308 to KT023311) shared 100% similarity with the ITS of S. nivalis strain MAFF 241343 (AB516670) and the TUB2 of strain KGC-S0601 (JX296007). The pathogenicity test was performed by placing PDA plugs (8 mm2) from a 7-day-old culture on the basal stems of five healthy seedlings. Sterile PDA was used to mock-inoculate five plants as controls. Plants were maintained at 20°C with 90% relative humidity. The experiments were performed three times. Within 10 days after inoculation, all inoculated plants developed symptoms similar to those observed on naturally affected plants, whereas no symptoms were observed on control plants. The fungus was reisolated from inoculated plants and exhibited the morphological characteristics identical to S. nivalis, thereby fulfilling Koch’s postulates. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of S. nivalis causing Sclerotinia rots on hardy kiwifruit in China. This new disease may represent serious constraint for hardy kiwifruit production, and control measures must be developed to prevent this disease. © 2016, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.


Wang S.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | Wang S.,Yanbian University | Zheng J.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | Yang Y.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | And 5 more authors.
Asian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

The electrical fusion procedure used in Nuclear Transfer (NT) is one of the critical factors affecting the efficiency of animal cloning. The objective of this study was to compare the fusion competence of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and bovine interspecies nuclear transfer (iSCNT) in different electrical fusion parameters. The NT-embryos were obtained by transfer of the pedicle periosteum cell of deer at the 4th passage into the enucleated metaphase II (M II) bovine oocytes. As results shown, the percentage of couplets successfully fused at 2.4 kV cm-1 was the highest (57.2% vs 31.5, 41.0 and 45.7%, p<0.05). The percentage of couplets successfully and reconstructed embryos cleaved were the highest in 1 Direct Current (DC) pulse group but there were no significant difference among all groups (p>0.05). The percentage of couplets successfully fused in 10 μsec group (68.3%) was significantly higher than 40 μsec group (37.5%, p<0.05). The percentage of reconstructed embryos cleaved was 64.7% at 2 h group, it was higher than 3 h group (26.0%, p<0.05). These results suggested that electrical fusion procedure of 2.4 kV cm-1 EFS, 1 DC pulse, 10 μsec and 2 h after NT manipulation were feasible to iSCNT of sika deer-bovine. © 2014 Knowledgia Review, Malaysia.


Li Y.-F.,South China Agricultural University | Jiang H.-X.,South China Agricultural University | Xiang R.,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun N.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to verify the supposition that efflux might be involved in the drug resistance of Riemerella anatipestifer isolates. Two broad-spectrum efflux pump inhibitors, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN), on the contribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, nalidixic acid, levofloxacin, enrofloxacin, as well as ciprofloxacin against 69 clinical R. anatipestifer isolates were investigated. We first reported that the two efflux pump inhibitors could restore the antimicrobial susceptibility of R. anatipestifer isolates. It is suggested that active efflux system is possible to be linked with the development of resistance in R. anatipestifer isolates. © 2016 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


Chen X.M.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant Science | Wei H.J.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant Science | Yang Y.F.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant Science | Xue H.L.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant Science | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2015

The study was conducted to investigate the serum hormone concentrations and follicular dynamics present after synchronous treatment (CIDR) in female Jilin sika deer (. n=. 15) of estrous cycles. Blood samples were collected to analyze the FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone during the estrous cycles. Manual transrectal ultrasonography examination was conducted at least thrice weekly to monitor the follicular wave. Ultrasonography showed that follicle development occurred in waves, and most estrous cycles in Jilin sika deer consist of one, two, or three waves. The largest follicles of the interwaves of two- and three-wave cycles were different (. P<. 0.05). The mean interovulatory interval was 15.0. ±. 4.6. d. There was a surge in circulating FSH in two- and three-wave cycles. The emergence of the largest follicle was related to the peak of serum concentration of estradiol. Serum progesterone concentrations were not different between one- and three-wave cycles (. P<. 0.05). We concluded that FSH and estradiol concentration may have an important role in controlling follicular development, that the estrous cycle in Jilin sika deer is characterized by one, two, or three waves of follicular development after synchronization. © 2015.


Wang C.W.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | Ai J.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | Fan S.T.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | Lv H.Y.,Institute of Special Animal and Plant science | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

Kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta), one of the most recently domesticated fruit species, contains vitamins, phenolics, and carotenoids, and is grown mainly in China, Korea, Russia, and Japan (Matich et al. 2003). In October 2014, 5 to 10% ripe rot was observed in fruit stored at 4°C in Changchun City, Jilin Province, China. Within 15 to 20 days, symptoms appeared as soft, brown, slightly sunken, water-soaked lesions with abundant white-to-pink mycelium. The sections were surface-sterilized with 70% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% HgCl2 for 1 min, triple rinsed with sterile water, dried on sterilized filter paper, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated 4 to 5 days at 25°C. A Fusarium species was consistently isolated and three single-spore cultures were characterized morphologically. These isolates grew slowly and formed abundant white aerial mycelium, then became floccose with rose pigmentation, and developed a brownish tinge in the center and grayish rose at the periphery on PDA. The ventral side of the colony was red to burgundy. Macroconidia formed in orange sporodochia, were broadly falcate with 3 to 5 septa, and 31.12 to 53.93 × 3.24 to 5.01 µm (n = 50). Microconidia were sparse, fusiform, or reniform, 0-to 1-septate, and 4.80 to 10.50 × 2.86 to 4.83 µm (n = 50). Chlamydospores were usually formed in chains. Morphological characteristics were consistent with those of Fusarium acuminatum (Leslie and Summerell 2006). The identity was further confirmed by sequencing rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (Fogliata et al. 2013), translation elongation factor (TEF-1α), and beta-tubulin (TUB2) gene region (Wang et al. 2014). ITS sequence (513 bp, KP325408), TEF-1α sequence (683 bp, KP325409), and TUB2 sequence (1307 bp, KP325410) had 100% identity to F. acuminatum with 10 accessions (e.g., KJ737377), nine accessions (e.g., JX397866), and one accession (KJ396328), respectively. Pathogenicity tests were performed by spraying a 50-µl conidial suspension (1 × 106 conidia/ml) onto kiwifruit (cv. Kuilv). Five fruit were inoculated with each isolate and five fruit were sprayed with sterilized water as controls and maintained at 25°C and 90% relative humidity. The experiment was carried out three times. Within 10 to 14 days, all inoculated fruit developed the symptoms similar to those on diseased fruit, and no symptoms were observed on control fruit. The pathogen was successfully reisolated on PDA, exhibiting morphological characteristics identical to F. acuminatum, thereby completing Koch’s postulates. Although F. acuminatum has been previously reported as a ripe rot pathogen of A. deliciosa fruit in New Zealand (Pennycook 1985), this is the first report of F. acuminatum causing postharvest rots of A. arguta in China. Therefore, proper control measures should be implemented to prevent significant losses to quality and marketability of kiwifruit. © The American Phytopathological Society.


PubMed | Institute of Special Animal and Plant science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

Myostatin, encoded by the MSTN gene (previously GDF8), is a member of the transforming growth factor- superfamily, which normally acts to limit skeletal muscle mass by regulating the number and growth of muscle fibers. In this study, a total of 84 myostatin gene sequences with known complete coding regions (CDS) and corresponding amino acid sequences were analyzed from 17 species, and differentiation within and among species was studied using comparative genomics and bioinformatics. Characteristics of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were also predicted. The results indicated that a total of 569 polymorphic sites, including 53 singleton variable sites and 516 parsimony informative sites, which could be sorted into 44 haplotypes, were detected from 17 species. Observed genetic diversity was higher among species than within species, and Vulpes lagopus was more polymorphic than other species. There was clear differentiation of the myostatin gene among species and the reconstructed phylogenetic tree was consistent with the NCBI taxonomy. The myostatin gene was 375-aa long in most species, except for Mus musculus (376 aa) and Danio rerio (373 aa). The amino acid sequences of myostatin were deemed hydrophilic, and had theoretical pI values of <7.0, mostly due to the acidic polypeptide. The instability index of the myostatin protein was 40.48-51.63, indicating that the polypeptide is not stable. The G+C content of the CDS nucleotide sequence in different species was 40.60-51.69%. The predicted promoter region of the Ovis aries myostatin gene was 150-220 bp upstream of the start codon.

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