Cardellach E.,Institute of Space science ICE CSIC IEEC |
Rius A.,Institute of Space science ICE CSIC IEEC |
Martin-Neira M.,European Space Agency |
Fabra F.,Institute of Space science ICE CSIC IEEC |
And 5 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014
This paper revises the precision of altimetric measurements made with signals of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) reflected (GNSS-R) off the sea surface. In particular, we investigate the performance of two different GNSS-R techniques, referred to here as the clean-replica and interferometric approaches. The former has been used in GNSS-R campaigns since the late 1990s, while the latter has only been tested once, in 2010, from an 18-m-high bridge in static conditions and estuary waters. In 2011, we conducted an airborne experiment over the Baltic Sea at 3-km altitude to test the interferometric concept in dynamic and rougher conditions. The campaign also flew a clean-replica GNSS-R instrument with the purpose of comparing both approaches. We have analyzed with detail the data sets to extract and validate models of the noise present in both techniques. After predicting the noise models and verifying these with aircraft data, we used them to obtain the precision of altimetric measurements and to extrapolate the performance analysis to spaceborne scenarios. The main conclusions are that the suggested noise model agrees with measured data and that the GNSS-R interferometric technique is at least two times better in precision than a technique based on using a clean replica of the publicly available GPS code. This represents a factor of at least four times finer along-track resolution. A precision of 22 cm in 65-km along-track averaging should be achievable using near-nadir interferometric GNSS-R observations from a low earth orbiter. © 2013 IEEE.
Hernanz M.,Institute of Space science ICE CSIC IEEC
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2014
V2487 Oph (Nova Oph 1998) is a classical nova that exploded in 1998. XMM-Newton observations performed between 2 and 9 years after the explosion showed emission related to restablished accretion, and indicative of a magnetic white dwarf. The spectrum looks like that of a cataclysmic variable of the intermediate polar type. Anyway, we don't have yet a definitive confirmation of the intermediate polar character, through determination of spin and orbital periods. Although it is not the first nova exploding in a magnetic white dwarf, it is always challenging to reach explosive conditions when a standard accretion disk can't be formed, because of the magnetic field. In addition, V2487 Oph has been the first nova where a detection of X-rays - in the host binary system - has been reported prior to its eruption, in 1990 with the ROSAT satellite. V2487 Oph has been also detected in hard X-rays with INTEGRAL/IBIS and RXTE/PCA. Last but not least, V2487 Oph has been identified as a recurrent nova in 2008, since a prior eruption in 1900 has been reported through analysis of Harvard photographic plates. Therefore, it is expected to host a massive white dwarf and be a candidate for a type Ia supernova explosion. In a recent study of the progenitors of galactic novae, it has been emphasized that V2487 Oph is an important and interesting object, "intermediate" between the "standard" classical novae and other historical and well-known recurrent novae with shorter recurrence periods. It could be that in the end there's a continuous distribution of recurrence periods, instead of the common understanding up to now that "classical" and "recurrent" novae were quite apart (with recurrence periods of more than 104 years and less than 100years - approximately - respectively). We present the results of our campaign of several observations with XMM-Newton. The consequences for the understanding of such a puzzling object are discussed. © 2014 Owned by the authors.