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Baleanu D.,Cankaya University | Baleanu D.,Institute of Space science | Asad J.H.,University of Tabuk | Petras I.,Technical University of Kosice
Romanian Reports in Physics | Year: 2012

In this paper we study the fractional Lagrangian of the two-electric pendulum. We obtained the fractional Euler-Lagrangian equation of the system and then we studied the obtained Euler-Lagrangian equation analytically, and numerically. The numerical method used here is based on Grünwald-Letnikov definition of left and right fractional derivatives.

Sperhake U.,University of Cambridge | Sperhake U.,Institute of Space science | Sperhake U.,University of Lisbon | Sperhake U.,California Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We explore the impact of black hole spins on the dynamics of high-energy black hole collisions. We report results from numerical simulations with γ factors up to 2.49 and dimensionless spin parameter χ=+0.85, +0.6, 0, -0.6, -0.85. We find that the scattering threshold becomes independent of spin at large center-of-mass energies, confirming previous conjectures that structure does not matter in ultrarelativistic collisions. It has further been argued that in this limit all of the kinetic energy of the system may be radiated by fine tuning the impact parameter to threshold. On the contrary, we find that only about 60% of the kinetic energy is radiated for γ=2.49. By monitoring apparent horizons before and after scattering events we show that the "missing energy" is absorbed by the individual black holes in the encounter, and moreover the individual black-hole spins change significantly. We support this conclusion with perturbative calculations. An extrapolation of our results to the limit γ→∞ suggests that about half of the center-of-mass energy of the system can be emitted in gravitational radiation, while the rest must be converted into rest-mass and spin energy. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Witek H.,University of Lisbon | Witek H.,University of Cambridge | Cardoso V.,University of Lisbon | Cardoso V.,University of Mississippi | And 5 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Light bosonic degrees of freedom have become a serious candidate for dark matter, which seems to pervade our entire Universe. The evolution of these fields around curved spacetimes is poorly understood but is expected to display interesting effects. In particular, the interaction of light bosonic fields with supermassive black holes, key players in most galaxies, could provide colorful examples of superradiance and nonlinear bosenovalike collapse. In turn, the observation of spinning black holes is expected to impose stringent bounds on the mass of putative massive bosonic fields in our Universe. Our purpose here is to present a comprehensive study of the evolution of linearized massive scalar and vector fields in the vicinities of rotating black holes. The evolution of generic initial data has a very rich structure, depending on the mass of the field and of the black hole. Quasinormal ringdown or exponential decay followed by a power-law tail at very late times is a generic feature of massless fields at intermediate times. Massive fields generically show a transition to power-law tails early on. For a certain boson field mass range, the field can become trapped in a potential barrier outside the horizon and transition to a bound state. Because there are a number of such quasibound states, the generic outcome is an amplitude modulated sinusoidal, or beating, signal, whose envelope is well described by the two lowest overtones. We believe that the appearance of such beatings has gone unnoticed in the past, and in fact mistaken for exponential growth. The amplitude modulation of the signal depends strongly on the relative excitation of the overtones, which in turn is strongly tied to the bound state geography. A fine-tuning of the initial data allows one to see the evolution of the nearly pure bound state mode that turns unstable for sufficiently large black hole (BH) rotation. For the first time we explore massive vector fields in a generic black hole background that are difficult, if not impossible, to separate in the Kerr background. Our results show that spinning BHs are generically strongly unstable against massive vector fields. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Kirkby-Kent J.A.,Keele University | Maxted P.F.L.,Keele University | Serenelli A.M.,Institute of Space science | Turner O.D.,Keele University | And 4 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2016

AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims. Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods. A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results. The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02 -0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions. Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium abundance and mixing length. © 2016 ESO.

Boniface K.,Environment Canada | Aparicio J.M.,Environment Canada | Cardellach E.,Institute of Space science
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2011

Vertical profiles of the atmosphere can be obtained globally with the radio-occultation technique. However, the lowest layers of the atmosphere are less accurately extracted. A good description of these layers is important for the good performance of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems, and an improvement of the observational data available for the low troposphere would thus be of great interest for data assimilation. We outline here how supplemental meteorological information close to the surface can be extracted whenever reflected signals are available. We separate the reflected signal through a radioholographic filter, and we interpret it with a ray tracing procedure, analyzing the trajectories of the electromagnetic waves over a 3-D field of refractive index. A perturbation approach is then used to perform an inversion, identifying the relevant contribution of the lowest layers of the atmosphere to the properties of the reflected signal, and extracting some supplemental information to the solution of the inversion of the direct propagation signals. It is found that there is a significant amount of useful information in the reflected signal, which is sufficient to extract a stand-alone profile of the low atmosphere, with a precision of approximately 0.1 %. The methodology is applied to one reflection case. © 2011 Author(s).

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