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Doroszewska T.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

The wild species Nicotiana africana is a source of Potato virus Y (PVY) resistance. Tolerance to PVY was transferred from N. africana to Nicotiana tabacum by two backcrosses with variety 'BP-210'. Successive generations were obtained by selfing. Cytological investigations covered counts of mitotic chromosomes, study of meiotic configurations and pollen viability. The number of mitotic chromosomes varied according to generations. In pollen mother cells, the number of univalents decreased with advancing generations. Stable 48-chromosome lines were found in the BC2F5. There was an increase of the percentage of PVY tolerant plants with each of the advancing generations. Challenged with two PVY isolates, the breeding lines showed higher levels of tolerance than conventional N. tabacum cultivars. There was a conspicuous absence of necrotic responses in the N. africana-derived materials. These stable breeding lines carrying N. africana-derived tolerance factors to different strains and isolates of PVY are the source of a very valuable germplasm to be used for breeding. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Staniak M.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute
Acta Mycologica | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to compare yields and nutritional value of selected species and cultivars of forage grasses under the optimal moisture conditions and long-term drought stress. The regenerative capacity of plants after dehydration was also assessed. The pot experiment was conducted in years 2009-2010 in IUNG-PIB’s greenhouse in Puławy, Poland. Nine cultivars of four species: Dactylis glomerata (‘Amera’, ‘Minora’), Festuca pratensis (‘Skra’, ‘Fantazja’), Festulolium braunii (‘Felopa’, ‘Agula’, ‘Sulino’), and Lolium multiflorum (‘Gisel’, ‘Lotos’) were investigated in well-watered conditions (70% field water capacity -FWC) and under a long-term drought stress (40% FWC). The study showed that stress caused by soil moisture deficiency significantly reduced yields of D. glomerata, F. pratensis, F. braunii, and L. multiflorum. The total yield of dry matter under stress conditions was about 31% lower, compared to the performance achieved on the optimally moisturized treatment. The smallest reduction in dry matter yield under the conditions of water deficit was recorded for D. glomerata, which makes it the most resistant to stress, followed by F. pratensis. The resistance of F. braunii and L. multiflorum to stress was similar and significantly lower. There was a various response of different grasses to the water stress. On the basis of the value of the DSI (drought susceptibility index), the tested cultivars were ranked depending on the sensitivity to drought, starting with the most resistant cultivar: ‘Minora’, ‘Skra’, ‘Fantazja’, ‘Amera’, ‘Sulino’, ‘Agula’, ‘Gisel’, ‘Lotos’, and ‘Felopa’. The digestibility of dry matter and nutrient value of the grasses depended on both the level of soil moisture and grass species. Under the water stress, the digestibility and protein value increased compared to the control objects. Lolium multiflorum and F. braunii had the best nutritional value, while D. glomerata -the weakest. © The Author(s) 2016.

Durak A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Gawlik-Dziki U.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Pecio L.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

This paper evaluates the potential bioaccessibility and interactions between antiradical and anti-inflammatory compounds from coffee and cinnamon. Results obtained for whole plant material extracts were compared with those for chlorogenic and cinnamic acids (the main bioactive constituents of the study material). All samples, coffee, cinnamon and a mixture of the two showed abilities to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Both activities increased after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. In the mixture antiradical phytochemicals acted antagonistically - isoboles adopted the convex form. The same interactions were determined for chemical standards. The water-extractable LOX inhibitors acted synergistically - the isobole curve was "concave". The same type of interaction was determined for standard compounds. Interestingly, after digestion in vitro a slight antagonism in the action of LOX inhibitors was observed. The results show that the food matrix and/or its changes during digestion may play an important role in creating the biological properties. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Szewczyk B.F.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2013

One of the methods of weed regulation in organic farming system is a choice of varieties with bigger competitive ability against weeds. The aim of the research was the estimation of the relationships between the morphological features of modern common winter wheat varieties and old variety of spelt (Schwabenkorn) and their competitive ability against weeds, measured by the level of weed infestation. The study was conducted in the Experimental Station of Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute in Puławy, Poland (N51°28', E22°04'), on the fields used in organic system since 1994. The experiment with different winter wheat varieties was carried out in 2008-2010, in completely randomized blocks. A significant, negative correlation between weed infestation and density of wheat, dry matter of wheat and the height has been proven. There was no significant correlation between tillering and parameters of weed infestation. Different features influenced the level of weed infestation of tested varieties. Smuga and spelt Schwabenkorn were most competitive against weeds, while Kobra and Bogatka were characterized with the smallest competitiveness against weeds. The number and dry matter of weeds were less differentiated because of the variety, and much more because of the years due to different weather conditions.

Czubacka A.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute | Doroszewska T.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation State Research Institute
Euphytica | Year: 2010

Tobacco transgenic lines belonging to four cultivars modified with three genetic constructions providing the resistance to Potato virus Y (PVY) had been described as regards their agronomic and biological traits. The constructions included viral genes: the coat protein gene of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) and the replicase gene of PVY used in sense and antisense orientation. Evaluation of the chosen farm traits of the transgenic tobacco lines was performed by comparing them with their nontransgenic equivalents. The traits such as growth and development rate, height of stalks, leaf area, morphology of plants, course of meiosis and pollen viability were described. The cured leaves were analysed as regards to their physical traits and chemical composition. The individual transgenic lines differed from control cultivars to a little extent. Only insignificant changes, mainly in the quality of raw material were observed. Genetic modification did not cause any changes in the course of meiosis and pollen viability. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

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