Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute

Wrocław, Poland

Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute

Wrocław, Poland
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Kieloch R.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute | Weber R.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute | Golebiowska H.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2017

Weeds are a primary factor limiting maize yield. Their occurrence and abundance are affected considerably by environmental factors and farming practices. The variability of weed number in maize depending on the soil type and farm size was investigated. Farms of different sizes vary in farming practices, which affects weediness. Based on this assumption, farm size was considered as indirect factor affecting weed abundance. An investigation of 45 farms that differed in size (5–15 ha, 15–50 ha, >50 ha) and soil type (chernozem, distric cambisol, haplic luvisol) was conducted. Thirteen dominant weed species persistently occurring in maize fields in south-western Poland were examined. Regardless of the soil type and farm size, the most abundant weed species were Echinochloa crus-galli and Chenopodium album. In addition to these species, the most numerous weeds on chernozems were Setaria viridis and Solanum nigrum, while on haplic luvisols and distric cambisols, the most numerous were Viola arvensis and Elymus repens. Additionally, on haplic luvisols, Anthemis arvensis was abundant. Small farms were stronger infested by weeds than large farms due to the implementation of extensive weed-supressing practices, especially low herbicide use. Soil type affected the number of weeds to a greater extent than did farm size. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Kieloch R.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute | Golebiowska H.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute | Sienkiewicz-Cholewa U.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute
Acta Agrobotanica | Year: 2015

The aim of the study was to examine the morphology, and selected aspects of biology (seed germination capacity, biomass productivity) of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) growing in two locations with different soil conditions near Wroclaw. Habitat 1 was characterized by low to moderate contents of nutrients, slightly acidic pH, and low organic matter content in the soil, whereas habitat 2 had soil richer in nutrients, a neutral pH, and higher organic matter content. During the growing period, phytosociological relevés were taken and biometric measurements were performed. In controlled conditions, the germination rate and biomass productivity were estimated in the initial growth stage. The soil conditions that were more favorable for P. arundinacea growth (neutral pH, higher content of organic matter and nutrients) promoted its dominance, and substantially limited the occurrence of other taxa. The floristic composition in the less fertile habitat was considerably richer and the abundance of P. arundinacea was much lower in it, compared with the other location. Phalaris arundinacea plants growing on the nutrient-richer soil were higher and had longer leaf blades and panicles with a greater number of spikelets per panicle than specimens growing on the poorer soil. Seeds collected from plants growing on the more fertile soil exhibited greater germination capacity than seeds from plants originating from the poorer habitat. However, there were no differences in the quantity of biomass produced in the controlled conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.


Kieloch R.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute | Domaradzki K.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation Research State Institute
Journal of Central European Agriculture | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was the evaluation of spray volume and nozzle type effect on different formulation (water dispersible granules - WG and oil dispersion - OD) of two sulfonylurea herbicides: the mixture iodosulfuron methyl sodium + amidosulfuron and iodosulfuron methyl sodium + mesosulfuron methyl efficacy. There were investigated three levels of spray volume (125 l*ha-1, 250 l*ha-1 and 350 l*ha-1) and two types of nozzle (extended range flat nozzle TeeJet XR 11003-VS and drift guard flat nozzle TeeJet DG 11003-VS). Each herbicide was used at recommended dose and reduced by half. Spray volume and nozzle type did not affect activity of the mixture iodosulfuron methyl sodium + amidosulfuron, but differentiated the efficacy of OD formulation of iodosulfuron methyl sodium + mesosulfuron methyl, when it was applied at lowered dose. As spray volume rose, herbicide efficacy decreased. Nozzle type influenced OD formulation of the mixture iodosulfuron methyl sodium + mesosulfuron methyl, independently on dose. Significantly weaker efficacy was obtained when drift guard nozzle was used.

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