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Pusz W.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Kita W.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Dancewicz A.,National Water Research Institute | Weber R.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute
Journal of Mountain Science | Year: 2013

The incidence of the airborne fungal spores was determined in the air of subalpine zone of the Karkonosze Mountains and of the Izerskie Mountains in the borderland between Poland and the Czech Republic. The experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at three to four week intervals from May to October. Air samples were taken from three locations in the Karkonosze Mts. and one from the Izerskie Mts. To examine the air, the Air Ideal 3P sampler and acidified PDA medium were used. The results show that Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most abundant spore type in all the sampling locations (up to 30%), followed by Alternaria alternata (16%-20%), Fusarium (up to 10%) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorium (up to 6%). The lower spore counts were recorded in May samples, compared to the other months. In this case the snow cover, that was still present in the area at the beginning of May, may be the reason for the lower, compared to June, July and August samplings, CFU (Colony Forming Unit) counts in that month. The influx of air masses from SE, S and SW sectors in the area under study may affect dissemination of the plant-pathogenic fungi from the Czech Republic and from the South of Europe in general. © 2013 Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Pusz W.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Plaskowska E.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Weber R.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute | Kita W.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2015

The presented research aimed at determining the species composition and concentration of colony forming units (CFU) in two types of cattle barns for dairy cows and in a calf barn. The study was carried out in winter and summer 2012. The measurements took place in a free stall and tie stall barn and, additionally, in a calf barn. The mycological analysis of the air was conducted using the impact method, with an Air Ideal 3P apparatus. Spores of 45 species of fungi were found in cattle barn air, among them 36 species were collected in winter and 30 in summer. The fungal population was characterized by considerable variation across the seasons of the year and between bar types. The species most abundant irresepective of the season was Cladosporium herbarum. Winter conditions favored Penicillium nigricans, whereas summer was conducive to the development of Rhodotorula glutinis. The concentrations of fungal spores determined in the study were not a direct hazard to barn workers or animals. © 2015, HARD Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Source


Pusz W.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Weber R.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute | Dancewicz A.,National Water Research Institute | Kita W.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Journal of Mountain Science | Year: 2016

The study aimed to determine, by using a statistical model, the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of Lophodermium yellow needle blight causing by new species for science - Lophodermium corconticum, in the mountain dwarf pine growing in the subalpine Karkonosze Mountains and the Izerskie Mountains (Poland). Needles showed symptoms of yellow spots, gradual discolouration and premature fall in July. The assessment of healthiness of infected mountain dwarf pine needles spanned three years (2011 - 2013) and was conducted in several test sites in the Karkonosze and Izerskie Mountains. The results were analyzed by taking into account the meteorological conditions. Field observations seem to indicate that the highest infestation of mountain dwarf pine occurs in June and July, while September and October see a significantly lower disease index in the Karkonosze Mountains. The lower indices of the infestation of mountain dwarf pine are characteristic for the vegetation in the Hala Izerska high mountain pasture; whereas the environmental conditions prevailing in the Kocioł Małego Stawu cirque and above the Samotnia hostel are conducive to the development of Lophodermium yellow needle blight. © 2016, Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Sienkiewicz-Cholewa U.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute | Wrobel S.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute | Nowak-Winiarska K.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2012

In this study, a comparison was made of the applicability of various extraction solvents for the determination of available Cu and Zn in contaminated soils. A greybrovn Podzolic Soil (loamy sand) was used, with acid reaction - pH 5,3 and medium level of Cu and Zn. The soil was contaminated with copper and zinc, in the amounts of 150, 300 and 450 mg Zn kg-1 d.m. of soil. In the soil material, the level of zinc accepted as available for plants was determined in 1 mol HCl L-1. The total contents of the metals was determined in a mixture of concentrated HCl and HNO3. To determine the content of the forms of the component in the soil, also sequential chemical extraction of the metal was performed with the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) method. As a result of acid extraction in 1 mol HCl L-1, the amounts of Cu released from polluted soils constituted 33-39% of the total content of the element, and in the case of Zn 67-88%. As the level of soil pollution increased, the solution extracted greater and greater amounts of the metals. Correctness of the analyses is evidenced in the comparable amounts of available zinc determined in HCl and in 0.11 mol CH3COOH L -1 according to the BCR method. Also, similar results concerning the total zinc content were obtained using aqua regia and 6 mol HCl L-1 + 14 mol HNO3L-1, and summing up the zinc amounts obtained through sequential extraction. The results of the study demonstrate that 1 mole HCl L-1 solution can be useful for the determination of total forms of studied metals with high levels of soil pollution. © by PSP. Source


Nowak-Winiarska K.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute | Wrobel S.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute | Sienkiewicz-Cholewa U.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability | Year: 2012

The study presented here was conducted in vegetation experiments and focused on the determination of the fractional content of copper in a polluted soil, with relation to the chemical remediation applied, through sequential extraction with the optimised BCR method (Community Bureau of Reference). To simulate an actual condition, the soil was polluted with copper and incubated, and then mixed with suitable remediation additives. The experimental crop plant was sown into the soil prepared as above. Following the harvest of the crop plant, soil samples were taken and, after suitable preparation, subjected to sequential chemical analysis. The results of copper fractioning in the soil with the BCR method revealed that increasing level of soil pollution resulted primarily in an increase in the level of the fraction easily dissolving in an acid environment (F1). The remediation treatments applied differentiated, in particular, the share of that fraction with the greatest importance in terms of copper uptake by plants. The best effects in terms of reducing the share of F1 in favour of F2- reducible, at all the levels of soil pollution with copper, were observed in the case of peat (3% by weight) applied together with liming in accordance with single hydrolytic acidity. Depending on the remediation applied, the content of copper fractions F1 and F2 in the soil varied in an inverse proportion to each other. The results obtained demonstrated the importance of sequential extraction analysis of the metal in soil for the prediction of changes in its solubility and for the determination of its availability for plants. Source

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