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Kowalkowski T.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Pastuszak M.,Polish National Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Igras J.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation | Buszewski B.,Nicolaus Copernicus University
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2012

The aim of the modeling studies (MONERIS) was to estimate annual source apportioned nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions into the Vistula and Oder basins in 1995-2008, thus, during the transition period in Poland, characterized by changes in both agricultural sector and handling of point source pollution. N and P emissions into both basins showed declining tendencies. Between the sub-periods 1995-2002 and 2003-2008, the overall N emission into the Vistula and Oder basins decreased by 16-17% (i.e. by ca 26,900 tons in the Vistula and by ca 18,000 tons in the Oder basin); P emission declined by 23% in the Vistula and by 32% in the Oder basins (i.e. by ca 3400 tons in the Vistula and by ca 2200 tons in the Oder basin). The temporal patterns of N and P emission into the Vistula and Oder basins, as well as the percentage contribution of N and P pathways (particularly: overland flow, tile drainage, groundwater, waste water treatment plants) showed great differences between the basins. Natural (type of bedrock, soil type, lake area) and anthropogenic (regionally and temporarily different type and intensity of agricultural activity, spatially different structural changes in agriculture during the transition period, regionally and temporarily different investment in waste water treatment plans) factors were found to be responsible for the differences, and the relationships are extensively discussed in the paper. In 1995-2008, 70% of N emission into both river basins was via groundwater and tile drainage, with the former playing more important role in the Vistula basin, and the latter playing more important role in the Oder basin; contribution of N emission from point sources was comparable in both rivers and it reached 11-12%. In 1995-2008, point sources, erosion, overland flow, and urban systems were found the most important P pathways in both basins, with a higher percentage contribution of point sources in the Oder basin. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Durak A.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Gawlik-Dziki U.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Kowlska I.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

This study evaluated the interactions between antiradical and anti-inflammatory compounds from coffee and ginger. Results obtained for whole plant material extracts were compared with those for chlorogenic and caffeic acids (the main hydroxycinnamic acids of plant material). All the tested samples showed the ability to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Both of these activities increased after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Aromatic additives, such as ginger, are able to change the antioxidant properties of coffee extract and antioxidant interactions may be identified using two methods. Antiradical phytochemicals from coffee and ginger acted synergistically - isoboles adopted a concave form, while after digestion in vitro an additive reaction was observed; in turn, chemical standards acted antagonistically. Water extractable LOX inhibitors acted antagonistically; however, after digestion in vitro synergism was observed. The same kind of interaction was determined for standard compounds. These results were confirmed by IF (interaction factor) analysis. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Krzyzanowska J.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

This chapter is a comprehensive review of the health promoting phytochemicals commonly found in our daily food. These include carotenoids, phenolics, phytoestrogenes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, tocols, allicin, glucosinolates, limonene and capsaicinoids. The review encompasses the main food sources of these chemicals in the diet, the possible mechanisms of their activity, evidence for potential health promoting activity and possible harmful effects. The newly emerged interest in these phytochemicals in animal nutrition as substitutes for synthetic antibiotic growth promoters has also been addressed. © 2010 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Wojcik M.,Maria Curie Sklodowska University | Sugier P.,Maria Curie Sklodowska University | Siebielec G.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr) accumulation in shoots of 38 plant species spontaneously colonizing three Zn-Pb waste deposits in southern Poland was studied in order to find out if the age of the waste (30-130 years) or its type (slag or flotation residues) influence metal content in plants and to identify species potentially suitable for biomonitoring and phytoremediation. The total metal concentrations in the waste upper layers ranged from 7300 to 171790mgkg-1 for Zn, from 1390 to 22265mgkg-1 for Pb, and from 66 to 1464mgkg-1 for Cd, whereas CaCl2-extracted fractions accounted for 0.034-0.11 %, 0.005-0.03 %, and 0.28-0.62 % of total Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations, respectively. The concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr in substrates and in plants were low and ranged within the background values. Metal accumulation in plant shoots was poorly correlated with both total and CaCl2-extracted forms of metals in the substrate and was highly variable among species and also specimens of the same species. The highest mean concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd were found in Anthyllis vulneraria L. (901.5mgkg-1), Echium vulgare L. (116.92mgkg-1), and Hieracium piloselloides Vill. (26.86mgkg-1), respectively. Besides Reseda lutea L., no species appeared to be a good indicator of polymetallic environment pollution based on chemical analysis of shoots; however, metal accumulation in the whole plant communities of a particular contaminated area might be an accurate tool for assessment of metal transfer to vegetation irrespective of the type or age of the waste. All the species studied developed a metal exclusion strategy, thus exhibiting potential for phytostabilization of metalliferous wastelands. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Zaliwski A.S.,Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation
TripleC | Year: 2011

The article deals first with the problems of defining information. It is concluded that it is a misunderstanding to take a term and then to look for a definition. Rather a different way ought to be taken: to find the phenomenon first and then assign a name to it. The view that information is the same thing as a structure is considered. Then the processes by which information is created are analyzed. The definition that information is detected difference is closely scrutinized and it is found that information can also be detected sameness. It is argued that information is relative to the observer and for the very reason of the way it is created it is subjective. That extends only to information acquired. The existence of subjective information, however, does not prove information cannot exist objectively.

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