Institute of Soil Science

Sofia, Bulgaria

Institute of Soil Science

Sofia, Bulgaria
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Sabkov H.,Institute of Soil Science | Ivanov I.,Institute of Soil Science
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

An operational study of sheep milking installation DIO-24 has been carried out. The values of “Labour productivity per hour net milking time, W1” and “Labour productivity per hour operational milking time, W02“were found: • At high level of productivity: W1= 80.17 ewes/man-hour; W02= 55.28 ewes/man-hour; • At low level of productivity: W1= 114.53 ewes/man-hour; W02 = 70.87 ewes/man-hour. The relative values of the time for performing: technological operations during the actual milking (T1), preparatory (T2) and terminative (T3) technological operations have been established. Significant influence on the duration of the technological operations cause the level of productivity and the stage of lactation period, as the increase of T1is proportional to the increase of the productivity and the increase of both T2 and T3is inversely proportional to the increase of productivity. The relative value of T1 varies from 61.88% to 68.95% аnd the total relative value of auxiliary technological times (T2+ T3)- from 31.05 to 38.11%. The study of the relationship between the duration of the auxiliary technological operations (T2+ T3) and the design of DIO-24 gives grounds to conclude that the relatively high values of the auxiliary technological operations are caused by the design of fixation system, based on “The principle of arbitrary fixation”. A possible approach to overcome these disadvantages is to implement a fixation system, based on the “principle of arranged fixation”. Such an approach helps for improving of the organization of animals movement on the milking platform, reducing the time for performing of auxiliary technological operations and improving the operatrional characteristics of milking installation. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

Badea E.M.,Institute of Biochemistry | Chelu F.,Institute of Biochemistry | Lacatusu A.,Institute of Soil Science
Romanian Biotechnological Letters | Year: 2010

Since the introduction of insect-resistant crops in 1996, cultivation of this group of genetically modified crops has grown substantially. There are many Bt corn events in field trials, but only one is commercialized on the Romanian market. The levels of the protein in plant tissue would be valuable in determining the protein concentration to which nontarget organisms may be exposed. The soil fate of the Bt protein is a key parameter governing exposure of nontarget organisms in this environment. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate the impact of the soil type on Bt expression levels in transgenic corn tissue (leaves, roots seed); (ii) to monitor the time-dependent degradation of the cry1Ab protein in three soil types favorable for corn growing, with different physicochemical characteristics. Detection and quantification of Cry1Ab protein in tissue (leaves, roots and seeds) and soil extracts was conducted using ELISA method with a commercially available test system for detecting Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac proteins (QuantiPlate Kit for Cry1Ab/Cry1Ac; Agdia), following the recommended protocol of the manufacturer. To evaluate the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab protein accumulation in soil, transgenic corn containing event MON 810 encoding the cry1Ab gene was grown in greenhouse conditions in pots containing three types of soil. At the end of growing period, the corn plants were incorporated into the soil. During vegetative period and at different time points after biomass incorporation, soil samples were collected from pots, and the level of Cry1Ab protein in these samples was determined using ELISA assay. Regarding Bt protein content, there is no difference between plants grown in different soils types. The lowest Bt protein content was quantified in senescent tissue and in seeds. The average chart for test soils shows an initial Bt protein increase after incorporating the plant biomass into the greenhouse soil pots, with the Cry1Ab concentration peaking at about 6-9 weeks after incorporation, and declining slowly towards the 12-15 week (3-4 months) sampling interval. Overall, our results supports the conclusion that the Cry1Ab protein does not persist or accumulate in soil after incorporation in the soil of Bt corn plants expressing this protein. © 2010 University of Bucharest.

Vatchev T.D.,Institute of Soil Science
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

Fusarium root and stem rot is one of the most damaging diseases of greenhouse cucumber. This study reveals development and spread of airborne inoculum of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum the causal agent of the disease. Infective propagules of the pathogen were trapped from the air and recovered from greenhouse interior structures and equipment, including concrete floors, paths and stumps, iron scaffolding components, glass walls, roof surfaces, plastic pots and planters. The results suggest possible reinfestation of freshly steamed or fumigated soils by airborne propagules of the pathogen. © 2015, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved.

Patamanska G.,Institute of Soil Science | Chehlarova-Simeonova S.,Institute of Soil Science
INMATEH - Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2012

In recent decades changes in climate of Bulgaria have been observed, a warming trend was established, coupled with decreasing rainfalls, especially during the warm half of the year. This causes reduction of the agricultural production and prevents development of intensive agriculture without irrigation. There is a need for changing the existing irrigation systems towards improving their operation and management in order to develop productive, sustainable against altered climate conditions agriculture, which uses resources efficiently. The present article aims to analyze and evaluate the existing problems facing the irrigation sector in Bulgaria and to identify the main reasons for developmental delay. Key measures to be adopted for changing and renovation of existing irrigation systems and their management in order to increase the level of application of irrigation and water use efficiency are outlined.

Zuchowski J.,Institute of Soil Science | Pecio L.,Institute of Soil Science | Stochmal A.,Institute of Soil Science
Molecules | Year: 2014

While the phytochemical composition of lentil (Lens culinaris) seeds is well described in scientific literature, there is very little available data about secondary metabolites from lentil leaves and stems. Our research reveals that the aerial parts of lentil are a rich source of flavonoids. Six kaempferol and twelve quercetin glycosides were isolated, their structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and chemical methods. This group includes 16 compounds which have not been previously described in the scientific literature: quercetin 3-O-P-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (3), their derivatives 4-10,12-15,17,18 acylated with caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, or 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid and kaempferol 3-O-{[(6-O-E - p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-6)}-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (11). Their DPPH scavenging activity was also evaluated. This is probably the first detailed description of flavonoids from the aerial parts of lentil.

Wrobel S.,Institute of Soil Science
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2010

A vegetation experiment was set up to assess the effect of peat and vermicompost used separately or in combination with CaCO3 as soil amendments reducing the availability of excessive amounts of zinc in light soil cropped with sunflower. The best results were attained when vermicompost was added to soil at a rate of 1.5% soil weight along with CaCO3 according to double hydrolytic acidity. With this treatment it was possible to recover 70 to 94% of yields relative to natural (unpolluted) soil, in accordance with the degree of soil pollution with zinc. Peat was the most effective in soil enriching with organic matter. However, its acidifying properties retarded sorption of soluble zinc in soil. Similar concentrations of zinc were determined in aerial parts and roots of sunflower plants, which tended to rise as the zinc pollution rate increased. The results seem to indicate that soil assays employing 1 mol HCl dm-3 can be used for diagnosing zinc pollution in light soil. © by PSP.

Oro V.,Institute of Plant Protection and Environment | Nikolic B.,Institute of Plant Protection and Environment | Josic D.,Institute of soil science
Genetika | Year: 2014

The general opinion about the introduction of potato in Europe is the one regarding the direction from South America to Spain and subsequent distribution to other continents. Some historical data point out an alternative road. The potato spread from its place of origin to other continents in the light of parasite-host relationship, relying on nematode molecular data, is discussed in the present work. Biogeographic history of potato cyst nematode populations from different continents is in congruence with historical records.

Gajda A.M.,Institute of Soil Science | Przewloka B.,Institute of Soil Science
International Agrophysics | Year: 2012

Theeffectoftillageintensityonchangesof microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO 2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production. © 2012 Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Karadjova O.,Institute of Soil Science | Krumov V.,Institute of Soil Science
ZooKeys | Year: 2015

The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied. © 2015, Pensoft Publishers. All rights reserved.

Andreeva N.,Institute of Soil Science | Hristov B.,Institute of Soil Science
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2015

One of the widespread degradation processes is the salinity. In the Sofia field there are some small areas of slightly saline (solonetz-like and solonchak-like) soils and their classification is controversial. According to some authors these soils could be determined also as magnesium saline soil because of high percentage of exchangeable magnesium. They have limited distribution, poor agricultural potential and unfavourable physical properties because of their heavy texture. Nowadays they are used mainly for pasture. In Bulgarian soil classification system (1976) they are classified as Meadlow Cinnamonic, solonetz-like soil. This paper provides a new data for those soils and a new classification according to World Reference Base (WRB, 2006). The soil could be included in the Phaeozems reference soil group. © SGEM2015.

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