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Anwar S.A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Iqbal M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anwar-ul-Hassan,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ullah E.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Soil and Environment | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on rice-wheat yield and yield parameters, soil organic carbon content and nitrate leaching. Fourteen treatments viz: control (No NPK), 100% N through fertilizer (Recommended NPK), 100% N through FM, 100% N through press mud, 100% N through poultry litter, 75% N through fertilizer + 25% N through FM, 75% N through fertilizer + 25% N through press mud, 75% N through fertilizer + 25% N through poultry litter, 50% N through fertilizer + 50% N through FM, 50% N through fertilizer + 50% N through press mud, 50% N through fertilizer + 50% N through poultry litter, 25% N through fertilizer + 75% N through FM, 25% N through fertilizer + 75% N through press mud, 25% N through fertilizer + 75% N through poultry litter were tested. All organic manures were well mixed in soil before filling the pots. The results indicated that maximum plant height, number of tillers, number of grains per spike/panicle, 1000 grains weight and paddy/grain yield was obtained in treatment where 75% N through chemical fertilizers and 25% N through poultry litter was applied. The highest soil organic carbon after the harvest of rice and wheat was obtained in treatment where 100% N was applied through farm manure while soil nitrate was maximum in treatment where 75% N through chemical fertilizers and 25% N through poultry litter was applied. The study conjectured that combination of chemical fertilizers and poultry litter (75:25) proved best in comparison with other integrations and sole applications. © 2015, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source


Javid S.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Rowell D.L.,University of Reading
Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

Effectiveness of residual phosphate was determined in 13 Pakistani soil series and an English soil, by the isotopic exchange method. Phosphate (31P) was added to each soil to fulfill the maximum P sorption capacity. The soils after addition of phosphate were incubated at 10, 25 and 45 °C for 365 days to extend the observations equivalent to many years under field conditions. After one year of incubation, exchange with carrier free 32P was measured. Results showed that the isotopically labile P (E values) decreased as temperature increased. A poor correlation was found between CaCO3 and E values suggesting that high pH (Na), organic matter and reactivity of CaCO3 control the ability of CaCO3 in these soils to decrease labile P. The labile P in these soils decreased as the Olsen P decreased with time and this relationship was well described by the power equation. A linear relationship between solution P (intensity factor) and labile P (quantity factor) was found in these soils. It is concluded from this study that the residual effectiveness of phosphate varies from soil to soil, and increasing time of contact and temperature have a marked effect on its amount in a soil. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source


Qureshi M.A.,Agri Biotechnology Research Institute | Iqbal A.,Agri Biotechnology Research Institute | Akhtar N.,Agri Biotechnology Research Institute | Shakir M.A.,Agri Biotechnology Research Institute | Khan A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science
Soil and Environment | Year: 2012

The development of symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and leguminous plants results in active nitrogen fixation and plays a marvelous role in agriculture systems. L-tryptophan (L-TRP) is an amino acid that acts as physiological precursor of auxins and is responsible for biosynthesis of auxins in the rhizosphere. Pot experiment was conducted at the Soil Bacteriology Section Faisalabad to assess the co-inoculation effect of N2-fixing (Rhizobium) and P-solubilizing (Bacillus sp) in the presence of L-TRP. Results revealed that co-inoculation improved the pod and straw yield considerably but the effect was more pronounced with L-TRP. Co-inoculation increased the root length, root mass, number of nodule and mass as compared to control with L-TRP. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced 30.87 pod and 32.73 g pot-1 straw yield followed by 30.47 and 31.10 g pot-1 with rhizobial inoculation, respectively. Co-inoculation produced higher root mass (33.5 g), root length (36.0 cm), nodule number (34), nodule mass (0.131 g) and these values were further enhanced with L-TRP (40.5 g, 49 cm, 48 and 0.145 g). Co-inoculation enhanced the nutrient concentration in mash plant, grains and improved the nodulation as compared to the separate bacterial inoculations. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced higher soil N and available P in post harvest soil samples as compared to control. Study demonstrated that co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Bacillus species influenced the yield components positively than their separate inoculation and this effect could be more assenting with L-TRP. However, the approach of precursor-inocula interaction should be studied more comprehensively in different ecological zones to sustain the crop yield. © 2012, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source


Qureshi M.A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Ahmad Z.A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Akhtar N.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Iqbal A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediate the soil processes such as decomposition, nutrient mobilization, mineralization, solubilization, nitrogen fixation and growth hormone production. Microorganisms having the phosphate solubilizing capacity can convert the insoluble phosphates into soluble forms through the production of organic acids. Inoculation of seed with P-solubilizing microorganisms is a promising technique which may alleviate the deficiency of phosphorus. This bioavailability of soil inorganic phosphorus in the rhizosphere varies considerably with plant species and nutritional status of soil. A field experiment was conducted at Fiber Crops Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad to assess the ability of P-solubilizing rhizobacteria to enhance the growth and yield of cotton. Isolation and screening of P-solubilizer on Pikovskaya's medium was carried out at the Soil Bacteriology Section Faisalabad. The trial was conducted on clay loam soil with pH 8.3, EC 2.8 dSm-1, N 0.040 %, organic matter 0.75% and available P 10.3 mg kg-1 with three fertilizer levels viz. 120-30, 120-60, 120-90 kg NP ha-1 with and without P-solubilizer (Bacillus sp.) inoculum. Results revealed that bacterial inoculum produced significantly higher seed cotton yield 1630 as compared to 1511 kg ha-1. The highest seed cotton yield was observed at highest fertilizer level i.e. 1733 kg ha-1 with inoculum. The physical parameters like plant height, number of bolls per plant and boll weight and soil available P determined at regular intervals (30, 60, 90, days after sowing) was also found higher in the inoculated treatments. More exploration of this area of research should be carried out in different ecologies to compensate the mineral fertilizers. Source


Shehzad M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Maqsood M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anwar-ul-Haq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Niaz A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Weeds are one of the most important factors that impose a great threat to the crop yield. In order to alleviate the weeds infestation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the efficacy of various pre and post-emergence herbicides were tested during Rabi 2009 to 2010 at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results promised that clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i. ha -1 with maximum weed kill efficiency severely reduced the Avena fatua, Coronopus didymus and Melilotus indica population and dry weights compared with the control. Poor weed control was achieved using isoproturon at 1.5 kg a.i. ha -1, isoproturon + diflufenicon at 0.98 kg a.i. ha -1, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl at 1.00 kg a.i. ha -1, tralkoxydim at 0.5 kg a.i. ha -1 and chlorsulfuron at 0.074 kg a.i. ha -1. Considering total grain and straw yields (4900 kg ha -1); (6600 kg ha -1), post-emergence clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i. ha -1 causes an excellent increase in wheat yield (51.02%) over control. The highest spikebearing tillers (380.67), number of grains spike -1 (47.28) and 1000-grain weight (49.38 g) were maximum in clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i. ha -1 as post-emergence treated plots. Based on the total wheat yield (grain and straw) obtained, isoproturon at 1.5 kg a.i. ha -1, metribuzin + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl at 1.00 + 1.00 kg a.i. ha -1, chlorsulfuron at 0.074 kg a.i. ha -1 seemed someway phytotoxic to crop plants and depressed wheat yield. Hence, maximum net income of Rs. 136997 ha -1 and maximum MRR (%) of 231316.6 was recorded with the use of clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i. ha -1 as post applied followed by carfentrazone ethyl (0.015 kg a.i ha -1) with the MRR (%) of 89700. © 2012 Academic Journals. Source

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