Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science

Faisalābād, Pakistan

Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science

Faisalābād, Pakistan

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Majeed A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Niaz A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Muhmood A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Ahmad Z.A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2017

Flat transplanting with flooded irrigation is commonly used for growing rice, but it results in ineffective use of applied fertilizer and water. The objective of this study was to compare nitrogen use efficiency and water saving of rice transplanted on beds and on flat ground. This field experiment was performed in randomized complete design for three continuous years and all treatments were repeated three times. Results showed that transplanting of four lines of rice nursery on bed and one line in furrow and nitrogen application at 150 kg ha−1 recorded 16.06, 21.81, 16.0 and 20.21% higher paddy yield, nitrogen (N) uptake in paddy, N use efficiency and N agronomic efficiency than traditional flat method at same N level. Without loss in yield, about 25 kg ha −1 of N fertilizer and 24% of water can be saved with bed transplanting of rice as compared to flat method. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Zia M.H.,Fauji Fertilizer Co. | Zia M.H.,British Geological Survey | Watts M.J.,British Geological Survey | Niaz A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2016

In the developing world, vegetables are commonly grown in suburban areas irrigated with untreated wastewater containing potentially harmful elements (PHEs). In Pakistan, there is no published work on the bioaccessibility aspect of PHEs and dietary minerals (DMs) in sewage-irrigated soil or the vegetables grown on such soils in Pakistan. Several industrial districts of Pakistan were selected for assessment of the risk associated with the ingestion of vegetables grown over sewage-irrigated soils. Both the total and bioaccessible fraction of PHEs (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and DMs (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, Mg, and I) in soils and vegetable samples were measured. The concentrations of these PHEs and DMs in sewage-irrigated and control soils were below published upper threshold limits. However, compared to control soils, sewage irrigation over the years decreased soil pH (7.7 vs 8.1) and enhanced dissolved organic carbon (1.8 vs 0.8 %), which could enhance the phyto-availability of PHEs and DMs to crops. Of the PHEs and DMs, the highest transfer factor (soil to plant) was noted for Cd and Ca, respectively. Concentrations of PHEs in most of the sewage-irrigated vegetables were below the published upper threshold limits, except for Cd in the fruiting portion of eggplant and bell pepper (0.06–0.08 mg/kg Cd, dry weight) at three locations in Gujarat and Kasur districts. The bioaccessible fraction of PHEs can reduce the context of dietary intake measurements compared to total concentrations, but differences between both measurements were not significant for Cd. Since the soils of the sampled districts are not overly contaminated compared to control sites, vegetables grown over sewage-irrigated soils would provide an opportunity to harvest mineral-rich vegetables potentially providing consumers 62, 60, 12, 104, and 63 % higher dietary intake of Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Based on Fe and vanadium correlations in vegetables, it is inferred that a significant proportion of total dietary Fe intake could be contributed by soil particles adhered to the consumable portion of vegetables. Faecal sterol ratios were used to identify and distinguish the source of faecal contamination in soils from Gujranwala, Gujarat, and Lahore districts, confirming the presence of human-derived sewage biomarkers at different stages of environmental alteration. A strong correlation of some metals with soil organic matter concentration was observed, but none with sewage biomarkers. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


PubMed | Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science, British Geological Survey and Fauji Fertilizer Co.
Type: | Journal: Environmental geochemistry and health | Year: 2016

In the developing world, vegetables are commonly grown in suburban areas irrigated with untreated wastewater containing potentially harmful elements (PHEs). In Pakistan, there is no published work on the bioaccessibility aspect of PHEs and dietary minerals (DMs) in sewage-irrigated soil or the vegetables grown on such soils in Pakistan. Several industrial districts of Pakistan were selected for assessment of the risk associated with the ingestion of vegetables grown over sewage-irrigated soils. Both the total and bioaccessible fraction of PHEs (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and DMs (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, Mg, and I) in soils and vegetable samples were measured. The concentrations of these PHEs and DMs in sewage-irrigated and control soils were below published upper threshold limits. However, compared to control soils, sewage irrigation over the years decreased soil pH (7.7 vs 8.1) and enhanced dissolved organic carbon (1.8 vs 0.8%), which could enhance the phyto-availability of PHEs and DMs to crops. Of the PHEs and DMs, the highest transfer factor (soil to plant) was noted for Cd and Ca, respectively. Concentrations of PHEs in most of the sewage-irrigated vegetables were below the published upper threshold limits, except for Cd in the fruiting portion of eggplant and bell pepper (0.06-0.08mg/kg Cd, dry weight) at three locations in Gujarat and Kasur districts. The bioaccessible fraction of PHEs can reduce the context of dietary intake measurements compared to total concentrations, but differences between both measurements were not significant for Cd. Since the soils of the sampled districts are not overly contaminated compared to control sites, vegetables grown over sewage-irrigated soils would provide an opportunity to harvest mineral-rich vegetables potentially providing consumers 62, 60, 12, 104, and 63% higher dietary intake of Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Based on Fe and vanadium correlations in vegetables, it is inferred that a significant proportion of total dietary Fe intake could be contributed by soil particles adhered to the consumable portion of vegetables. Faecal sterol ratios were used to identify and distinguish the source of faecal contamination in soils from Gujranwala, Gujarat, and Lahore districts, confirming the presence of human-derived sewage biomarkers at different stages of environmental alteration. A strong correlation of some metals with soil organic matter concentration was observed, but none with sewage biomarkers.


Anwar S.A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Iqbal M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anwar-ul-Hassan,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ullah E.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Soil and Environment | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on rice-wheat yield and yield parameters, soil organic carbon content and nitrate leaching. Fourteen treatments viz: control (No NPK), 100% N through fertilizer (Recommended NPK), 100% N through FM, 100% N through press mud, 100% N through poultry litter, 75% N through fertilizer + 25% N through FM, 75% N through fertilizer + 25% N through press mud, 75% N through fertilizer + 25% N through poultry litter, 50% N through fertilizer + 50% N through FM, 50% N through fertilizer + 50% N through press mud, 50% N through fertilizer + 50% N through poultry litter, 25% N through fertilizer + 75% N through FM, 25% N through fertilizer + 75% N through press mud, 25% N through fertilizer + 75% N through poultry litter were tested. All organic manures were well mixed in soil before filling the pots. The results indicated that maximum plant height, number of tillers, number of grains per spike/panicle, 1000 grains weight and paddy/grain yield was obtained in treatment where 75% N through chemical fertilizers and 25% N through poultry litter was applied. The highest soil organic carbon after the harvest of rice and wheat was obtained in treatment where 100% N was applied through farm manure while soil nitrate was maximum in treatment where 75% N through chemical fertilizers and 25% N through poultry litter was applied. The study conjectured that combination of chemical fertilizers and poultry litter (75:25) proved best in comparison with other integrations and sole applications. © 2015, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.


Javid S.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Rowell D.L.,University of Reading
Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

Effectiveness of residual phosphate was determined in 13 Pakistani soil series and an English soil, by the isotopic exchange method. Phosphate (31P) was added to each soil to fulfill the maximum P sorption capacity. The soils after addition of phosphate were incubated at 10, 25 and 45 °C for 365 days to extend the observations equivalent to many years under field conditions. After one year of incubation, exchange with carrier free 32P was measured. Results showed that the isotopically labile P (E values) decreased as temperature increased. A poor correlation was found between CaCO3 and E values suggesting that high pH (Na), organic matter and reactivity of CaCO3 control the ability of CaCO3 in these soils to decrease labile P. The labile P in these soils decreased as the Olsen P decreased with time and this relationship was well described by the power equation. A linear relationship between solution P (intensity factor) and labile P (quantity factor) was found in these soils. It is concluded from this study that the residual effectiveness of phosphate varies from soil to soil, and increasing time of contact and temperature have a marked effect on its amount in a soil. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.


Qureshi M.A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Ahmad Z.A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Akhtar N.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | Iqbal A.,Ayub Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mediate the soil processes such as decomposition, nutrient mobilization, mineralization, solubilization, nitrogen fixation and growth hormone production. Microorganisms having the phosphate solubilizing capacity can convert the insoluble phosphates into soluble forms through the production of organic acids. Inoculation of seed with P-solubilizing microorganisms is a promising technique which may alleviate the deficiency of phosphorus. This bioavailability of soil inorganic phosphorus in the rhizosphere varies considerably with plant species and nutritional status of soil. A field experiment was conducted at Fiber Crops Section, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad to assess the ability of P-solubilizing rhizobacteria to enhance the growth and yield of cotton. Isolation and screening of P-solubilizer on Pikovskaya's medium was carried out at the Soil Bacteriology Section Faisalabad. The trial was conducted on clay loam soil with pH 8.3, EC 2.8 dSm-1, N 0.040 %, organic matter 0.75% and available P 10.3 mg kg-1 with three fertilizer levels viz. 120-30, 120-60, 120-90 kg NP ha-1 with and without P-solubilizer (Bacillus sp.) inoculum. Results revealed that bacterial inoculum produced significantly higher seed cotton yield 1630 as compared to 1511 kg ha-1. The highest seed cotton yield was observed at highest fertilizer level i.e. 1733 kg ha-1 with inoculum. The physical parameters like plant height, number of bolls per plant and boll weight and soil available P determined at regular intervals (30, 60, 90, days after sowing) was also found higher in the inoculated treatments. More exploration of this area of research should be carried out in different ecologies to compensate the mineral fertilizers.


Shakar M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Yaseen M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Niaz A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science | Mahmood R.,University of Punjab | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2016

Calcium carbide (CaC2) is a well-known source of acetylene and ethylene gases. Its use as a plant growth regulator could be an innovative approach for vegetable production if applied in suitable formulation. Different rates of CaC2 (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg plate-1) were evaluated regarding seed germination and morphological characteristics under controlled conditions. The results showed that germination rate was significantly improved by using low rates of CaC2 (10 to 30 mg CaC2 plate-1) while the highest rate of CaC2 (40 mg plate-1) suppressed germination rate of cucumber seeds. Likewise, lower rates of CaC2 were also found effective in enhancing the root and hypocotyl lengths, number of lateral roots and fresh weight of seedling while the highest rate of CaC2 was proved inhibitory. It was recorded that the CaC2 induced improvement in seed germination was significantly correlated (r = 0.75) with magnitude of ethylene production during imbibition. Moreover, a pot experiment was conducted under natural conditions to select optimum rate and coating material of CaC2 regarding growth and yield parameters of cucumber. It was found that all rates of CaC2, irrespective of coating materials, exhibited new primary branches, early female flowering and fruit maturity. Maximum response regarding female flower count, fruit yield and ethylene emission was obtained by the application of paint coated CaC2 at 300 mg pot-1, which resulted in 34% more fruit yield compared to control plants. © 2016 Friends Science Publishers.


Qureshi M.A.,Agri Biotechnology Research Institute | Iqbal A.,Agri Biotechnology Research Institute | Akhtar N.,Agri Biotechnology Research Institute | Shakir M.A.,Agri Biotechnology Research Institute | Khan A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science
Soil and Environment | Year: 2012

The development of symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and leguminous plants results in active nitrogen fixation and plays a marvelous role in agriculture systems. L-tryptophan (L-TRP) is an amino acid that acts as physiological precursor of auxins and is responsible for biosynthesis of auxins in the rhizosphere. Pot experiment was conducted at the Soil Bacteriology Section Faisalabad to assess the co-inoculation effect of N2-fixing (Rhizobium) and P-solubilizing (Bacillus sp) in the presence of L-TRP. Results revealed that co-inoculation improved the pod and straw yield considerably but the effect was more pronounced with L-TRP. Co-inoculation increased the root length, root mass, number of nodule and mass as compared to control with L-TRP. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced 30.87 pod and 32.73 g pot-1 straw yield followed by 30.47 and 31.10 g pot-1 with rhizobial inoculation, respectively. Co-inoculation produced higher root mass (33.5 g), root length (36.0 cm), nodule number (34), nodule mass (0.131 g) and these values were further enhanced with L-TRP (40.5 g, 49 cm, 48 and 0.145 g). Co-inoculation enhanced the nutrient concentration in mash plant, grains and improved the nodulation as compared to the separate bacterial inoculations. Co-inoculation with L-TRP produced higher soil N and available P in post harvest soil samples as compared to control. Study demonstrated that co-inoculation of Rhizobium and Bacillus species influenced the yield components positively than their separate inoculation and this effect could be more assenting with L-TRP. However, the approach of precursor-inocula interaction should be studied more comprehensively in different ecological zones to sustain the crop yield. © 2012, Soil Science Society of Pakistan.


Shehzad M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Maqsood M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anwar-ul-Haq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Niaz A.,Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Weeds are one of the most important factors that impose a great threat to the crop yield. In order to alleviate the weeds infestation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the efficacy of various pre and post-emergence herbicides were tested during Rabi 2009 to 2010 at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results promised that clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i. ha -1 with maximum weed kill efficiency severely reduced the Avena fatua, Coronopus didymus and Melilotus indica population and dry weights compared with the control. Poor weed control was achieved using isoproturon at 1.5 kg a.i. ha -1, isoproturon + diflufenicon at 0.98 kg a.i. ha -1, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl at 1.00 kg a.i. ha -1, tralkoxydim at 0.5 kg a.i. ha -1 and chlorsulfuron at 0.074 kg a.i. ha -1. Considering total grain and straw yields (4900 kg ha -1); (6600 kg ha -1), post-emergence clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i. ha -1 causes an excellent increase in wheat yield (51.02%) over control. The highest spikebearing tillers (380.67), number of grains spike -1 (47.28) and 1000-grain weight (49.38 g) were maximum in clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i. ha -1 as post-emergence treated plots. Based on the total wheat yield (grain and straw) obtained, isoproturon at 1.5 kg a.i. ha -1, metribuzin + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl at 1.00 + 1.00 kg a.i. ha -1, chlorsulfuron at 0.074 kg a.i. ha -1 seemed someway phytotoxic to crop plants and depressed wheat yield. Hence, maximum net income of Rs. 136997 ha -1 and maximum MRR (%) of 231316.6 was recorded with the use of clodinafop propargyl at 0.045 kg a.i. ha -1 as post applied followed by carfentrazone ethyl (0.015 kg a.i ha -1) with the MRR (%) of 89700. © 2012 Academic Journals.


PubMed | Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental science and CSIRO
Type: Journal Article | Journal: FEMS microbiology letters | Year: 2016

Neonicotinoids are neurotoxic systemic insecticides used in plant protection worldwide. Unfortunately, application of neonicotinoids affects both beneficial and target insects indiscriminately. Being water soluble and persistent, these pesticides are capable of disrupting both food chains and biogeochemical cycles. This review focuses on the biodegradation of neonicotinoids in soil and water systems by the bacterial community. Several bacterial strains have been isolated and identified as capable of transforming neonicotinoids in the presence of an additional carbon source. Environmental parameters have been established for accelerated transformation in some of these strains. Studies have also indicated that enhanced biotransformation of these pesticides can be accomplished by mixed microbial populations under optimised environmental conditions. Substantial research into the identification of neonicotinoid-mineralising bacterial strains and identification of the genes and enzymes responsible for neonicotinoid degradation is still required to complete the understanding of microbial biodegradation pathways, and advance bioremediation efforts.

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