Institute of Soil

Al Jīzah, Egypt

Institute of Soil

Al Jīzah, Egypt
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Ibrahim M.M.,Tanta University | Mahmoud E.K.,Tanta University | Ibrahim D.A.,Institute of Soil
International Agrophysics | Year: 2015

The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils. © 2015 Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Saleh E.A.,Ain Shams University | Zaki M.M.,Ain Shams University | Rahal A.,Institute of Soil | Mohamed Sonya H.,Institute of Soil | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

In this study, differentiation between five identified Streptomyces species was carried out on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA using random amplified polymorphisms of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) technique. Results revealed that these species differed in their DNA sequence as indexed by differences in numbers, sizes and unique amplified fragments. Such dissimilarities could be considered as an additional proof that identified isolates were different species of Streptomyces. In addition, the herbicide resistance (bar) gene was isolated by PCR technique in the DNA extracts of the five identified Streptomyces isolates (Streptomyces albosporeus subsp abilomycaticus, S. herbaricolor and S. aureomonopodiales) to be available for using as a selectable marker in the transformation of the transgenic plants using the Basta herbicide. It is the first evidence to detect this gene in local Streptomyces species in Egypt.

Mohamed S.H.,Institute of Soil | Rahal A.,Institute of Soil | Zaki M.M.,Ain Shams University | Saleh E.A.,Ain Shams University | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

This work was designed to study the role of streptomycetes in the biodegradation of Sencor herbicide and its persistence in liquid culture. Testing the biodégradation abilities of nine isolates of Streptomyces in vitro revealed that they differed greatly in the number of degradation-products produced from Sencor. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that all tested isolates began to degrade Sencor after 15 days from incubation. Number of compounds varied from one to five depending upon the isolate used, as the streptomycete isolates varied greatly in their abilities to degrade Sencor as indexed by the number of compounds produced from Sencor degradation. The products of Sencor degradation were more demonstrated after 30 and 45 days from incubation. Half life period of the herbicide was reached after 15 days in S. aureomonopodiales and mixture treatments, while was reached in the other treatments after 30 days. The present results could be considered as an additional prove for the in-vitro abilities of these streptomycete isolates to degrade and utilize Sencor as a sole nitrogen source in culture medium.

Ibrahim M.M.,Tanta University | El-Baroudy A.A.,Tanta University | Taha A.M.,Institute of Soil
International Agrophysics | Year: 2016

Field experiments was conducted to determine the best irrigation scheduling and the proper period for injecting fertilizers through drip irrigation water in a sandy soil to optimize maize yield and water productivity. Four irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2) of the crop evapotranspiration and two fertigation periods (applying the recommended fertilizer dose in 60 and 80% of the irrigation time) were applied in a split-plot design, in addition to a control treatment which represented conventional irrigation and fertilization of maize in the studied area. The results showed that increasing the irrigation water amount and the fertilizer application period increased vegetative growth and yield. The highest grain yield and the lowest one were obtained under the treatment at 1.2 and of 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, respectively. The treatment at 0.8 crop evapotranspiration with fertilizer application in 80% of the irrigation time gave the highest water productivity (1.631 kg m-3) and saved 27% of the irrigation water compared to the control treatment. Therefore, this treatment is recommended to irrigate maize crops because of the water scarcity conditions of the studied area. © 2016 Mahmoud M. Ibrahim et al., published by De Gruyter Open 2016.

Zaki M.M.,Ain Shams University | Saleh E.A.,Ain Shams University | Rahal A.,Institute of Soil | Mohamed S.H.,Institute of Soil | Mohamed S.H.,Taif University
Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The present work was designed to isolate and identify some actinomycetes able to degrade Basta (glufosinate) and Sencor (metribuzin) herbicides, which are widely used for weed control in Egypt. Results showed that 100 isolates of actinomycetes were isolated and purified from the rhizosphere soils of 11 different crops (barley, broad bean, clover, cotton, corn, grape, cantaloupe, pepper, sesame, tomato and wheat) treated with pesticides. The tolerance of the actinomycete isolates for Basta and Sencor herbicides were determined. Results showed that, 70 out of the 100 actinomycete isolates were able to grow on the recommended dose of Sencor (0.75 g/L) but 24 out of them were showed a good growth on the ten folds of the recommended dose of Sencor (7.5 g/L). At the same time, 38 actinomycete isolates grew on the recommended dose of Basta (2 g/L) and 18 of them appeared a moderate growth on 20 g/L of Basta herbicides. In addition, the ability of the 70 isolates to utilize the Sencor as carbon and/or nitrogen source was studied. Results showed that, 9 out of 70 actinomycete isolates gave a good growth on the starch nitrate agar medium containing the Sencor as a sole nitrogen source, while no isolates were found to be able to grow on the same medium with the Sencor as a sole carbon source. In this study, 5 isolates were biologically identified and found to be strains of Streptomyces rectiviolaceus, S.roseolus, S.albosporeus subspabilomycaucus, S. herbaricolor and S. aureomonopodiales.

Milanovic M.M.,University of Belgrade | Perovic V.S.,Institute of Soil | Tomic M.D.,Service for the protection and advance of environment | Lukic T.,University of Novi Sad | And 5 more authors.
Geographica Pannonica | Year: 2016

Both environmental control and appropriate measurement results present basis for the quality protection of geospatial elements. Providing environmental monitoring activities and creating control network is the obligation of each state, whereas local communities provide observation and control of air quality, water quality, waste quality, soil quality, vegetation and land cover control, etc. This has been the reason for the analysis of vegetation of the municipality of Jagodina in Serbia. By processing satellite images, data on the sources of pollution and polluting materials of the vegetation have been discovered. These include spot (stationary), linear (mobile and stationary) and surface (stationary and mobile) sources. While processing satellite images by the Idrisi software, we have acquired results that indicate certain vegetation modifications (images obtained through infrared spectral imaging). Results obtained through remote sensing indicate the necessity to define adequate vegetation monitoring, to complete a register of pollutants, to set up information system and define ways of data presentation in order to manage a single, complete register of environmental pollutants in the municipality of Jagodina.

Selim Sh.,Ain Shams University | Selim Sh.,Institute of Soil | Orabi M.M.,Ain Shams University | Abdel-Hafez A.A.M.,Ain Shams University | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

In this investigation, set of five Frankia strains were isolated from root nodules of Casuarina trees from five different regions in Egypt and were identified based on their physiological and molecular genetic variations. Results showed that growth parameters of C. glauca inoculated with the five Frankia strains grown in loamy sandy soil were both significantly higher than those of plants grown in clay soil. The effect of the Frankia strains under study on number of nodules, percentages of seedling that formed root nodules (nodulation frequency) and activity of acetylene reduction in clay soil as well as loamy sandy soil was addressed. The numerical analysis of the investigated parameters was found to be a useful tool for differentiation between the Frankia strains. We have analyzed 9 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers against five Frankia strains. Results showed that the number of amplified fragments differed between the strains. Some primers were useful in identifying unique DNA polymorphisms of all strains tested. Some fragments were found to be polymorphic (not common). These unique fragments could be recommended as markers for distinguishing between the applied strains of Frankia. Statistical analysis of RAPD-PCR polymorphisms showed similarities between Frankia strains ranged from 67.3 to 85%. The phylogenetic tree confirmed the genetic diversity between the Frankia strains under investigation. Genomic fingerprinting assay using RAPD-PCR was excellent methodology for differentiating between the Frankia strains. The correlation between the phylogenetic and the phylophenetic trees of the five Frankia strains were also discussed.

Saleh M.E.,Alexandria University | Mahmoud A.H.,Institute of Soil | Rashad M.,Universities Avenue
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2012

The removal of ammonium ions from synthetic wastewater by a novel adsorbent, the peanut hull biochar (PHB) powder, was investigated. The pore analyses, specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and FTIR spectra were used to characterize the surface and reactivity of PHB. The mathematical models were used to analyze the adsorption isotherms. Adsorption isotherm of ammonium ions using batch technique showed that, at equilibrium conditions, the removal rate was increased linearly with increasing the initial concentration of ammonium ions in water (2.0 - 20.0 gm-3). After 24 hr of reactions, the average amounts of NH4 + removed by PHB represented 66.3% regardless the type of associated anions (Cl- or SO4 2-). Concentrations of ammonium ions recovered from PHB surfaces represented 0.2-0.39% of the total removed NH4 +-N and reflected a strong sorption forces owned by PHB surfaces. The characteristics of pore volume, area and size distribution of PHB and tendency to increase the percents of small nano-pores as shown by SEM images may strengthen the removal results. The adsorption equilibrium fitted well to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The obtained results introduce the peanut hull biochar materials as an inexpensive adsorbent which has high adsorption capacities and recalcitrant nature.

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