Institute of Social Psychology

Bodle Street, United Kingdom

Institute of Social Psychology

Bodle Street, United Kingdom
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Rifkin S.,Institute of Social Psychology
Globalization and Health | Year: 2010

The year 2008 celebrated 30 years of Primary Health Care (PHC) policy emerging from the Alma Ata Declaration with publication of two key reports, the World Health Report 2008 and the Report of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Both reports reaffirmed the relevance of PHC in terms of its vision and values in today's world. However, important challenges in terms of defining PHC, equity and empowerment need to be addressed. This article takes the form of a commentary reviewing developments in the last 30 years and discusses the future of this policy. Three challenges are put forward for discussion (i) the challenge of moving away from a narrow technical bio-medical paradigm of health to a broader social determinants approach and the need to differentiate primary care from primary health care; (ii) The challenge of tackling the equity implications of the market oriented reforms and ensuring that the role of the State in the provision of welfare services is not further weakened; and (iii) the challenge of finding ways to develop local community commitments especially in terms of empowerment. These challenges need to be addressed if PHC is to remain relevant in today's context. The paper concludes that it is not sufficient to revitalize PHC of the Alma Ata Declaration but it must be reframed in light of the above discussion. © 2010 Bhatia and Rifkin; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gillespie A.,Institute of Social Psychology | Best C.,University of Stirling | O'Neill B.,University of Stirling
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Year: 2012

The relationship between assistive technology for cognition (ATC) and cognitive function was examined using a systematic review. A literature search identified 89 publications reporting 91 studies of an ATC intervention in a clinical population. The WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used to categorize the cognitive domains being assisted and the tasks being performed. Results show that ATC have been used to effectively support cognitive functions relating to attention, calculation, emotion, experience of self, higher level cognitive functions (planning and time management) and memory. The review makes three contributions: (1) It reviews existing ATC in terms of cognitive function, thus providing a framework for ATC prescription on the basis of a profile of cognitive deficits, (2) it introduces a new classification of ATC based on cognitive function, and (3) it identifies areas for future ATC research and development. Copyright © 2011 INS. Published by Cambridge University Press.

Sheppard P.,Institute of Social Psychology | Sear R.,Durham University
Biology Letters | Year: 2012

Despite the widespread assumption that paternal investment is substantial in our species, previous studies have shown mixed results in relation to the impact of fathers on both offspring survival and reproductive outcomes. Using data from a large representative sample of British men, we tested whether father absence is associated with the timing of reproduction-related events among boys, while controlling for various cues denoting early childhood adversity. We further tested whether the loss of the father at different childhood stages matters, so as to assess whether early life is the most important period or if effects can be seen during later childhood. The results show that father absence before age seven is associated with early reproduction, while father absence between ages 11 and 16 only is associated with delayed voice-breaking (a proxy for puberty), even after adjusting for other factors denoting childhood adversity. We conclude that fathers do exert an influence on male reproductive outcomes, independently of other childhood adversities and that these effects are sensitive to the timing of father absence. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Scott K.,Institute of Social Psychology | Scott K.,Support for Advocacy and Training to Health Initiatives SATHI | Shanker S.,Engineers Without Borders
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2010

This paper is a contribution to the growing literature on how best to design and support community health worker (CHW) programmes to maximise their positive impact. CHWs are laypeople trained to promote health among their peers. To do so they are commonly tasked with providing basic curative services, promoting the use of existing health services, facilitating cultural mediation between communities and healthcare providers and encouraging critical reflection and dialogue on social health issues. This paper presents a case study of a CHW project in rural Uttarakhand, north India, called the Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) programme. While the ASHA programme is not specifically targeting HIV/AIDS, CHW programmes have been flagged as a key means of addressing health resource shortages in poor countries, especially in relation to HIV/AIDS. This study of the ASHA programme provides insights into how best to support CHW programmes in general, including those focused on HIV/AIDS. The research involved 25 interviews and five focus groups with ASHAs, health professionals and community members as well as over 100 hours of non-participant observation at public health centres. The research investigated contextual features of the programme that are hindering the ASHAs' capacity to increase quantitative health outcomes and act as cultural mediators and agents of social change. Research found that ASHAs were institutionally limited by: (1) the outcome-based remuneration structure; (2) poor institutional support; (3) the rigid hierarchical structure of the health system; and (4) a dearth of participation at the community level. The conclusion suggests that progressive policy on CHW programmes must be backed up by concrete institutional support structures to enable CHWs to fulfil their role. © 2010 Taylor and Francis.

Reader T.W.,Institute of Social Psychology | Flin R.,University of Aberdeen | Cuthbertson B.H.,Sunnybrook Health science Center
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: To identify the behaviors senior physicians (e.g., specialists, staff attendings) report using to lead multidisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit. Design: Semistructured interviews focusing on team leadership, crisis management, and development of an environment that enable effective team performance in the intensive care unit. Setting: Seven general intensive care units based in National Health Service hospitals in the United Kingdom. Participants: Twenty-five senior intensive care medicine physicians. Measurements and Main Results: Responses to a semistructured interview were transcribed and subjected to "content" analysis. The interview analysis focused on references to the "functional" behaviors used by leaders to manage team performance and the "team development behaviors" used to build the conditions that enable effective team performance. Seven of the interviews were coded by a second psychologist to measure inter-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability (Cohen's κ) was acceptable for both scales (κ = 0.72 and κ = 0.75). In total, 702 functional leadership behaviors (behaviors for information gathering, planning and decision-making, managing team members) were coded as being used to manage the intensive care unit, along with 216 team development behaviors (for providing team direction and establishing team norms). These behaviors were grouped together in a theoretically driven framework of intensive care unit team leadership. Conclusions: Intensive care unit senior physicians report using a variety of leadership behaviors to ensure high levels of team performance. The data described in this study provide insight into the team leadership behaviors used by intensive care unit team leaders and have implications for the development of team leadership training and assessment tools. Copyright © 2011 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Reader T.W.,Institute of Social Psychology | Cuthbertson B.H.,Sunnybrook Health science Center
Critical Care | Year: 2011

The aviation industry has made significant progress in identifying the skills and behaviors that result in effective teamwork. Its conceptualization of teamwork, development of training programs, and design of assessment tools are highly relevant to the intensive care unit (ICU). Team skills are important for maintaining safety in both domains, as multidisciplinary teams must work effectively under highly complex, stressful, and uncertain conditions. However, there are substantial differences in the nature of work and structure of teams in the ICU in comparison with those in aviation. While intensive care medicine may wish to use the advances made by the aviation industry for conceptualizing team skills and implementing team training programs, interventions must be tailored to the highly specific demands of the ICU. © 2011 BioMed Central Ltd.

Reader T.W.,Institute of Social Psychology | Oconnor P.,National University of Ireland
Journal of Risk Research | Year: 2014

The explosion and destruction of the Deepwater Horizon (DH) was a watershed moment for safety management in the US oil and gas industry. The 2011 National Oil Spill Commission investigation identified a range of operational behaviours and underlying safety management problems that were causal to the mishap. Yet, to date these have not been systematically considered within a human factors framework. To achieve this, we draw upon two applied psychology domains that are highly influential within safety research. First, we apply non-technical skills (NTS) (social and cognitive skills that underpin safe performance in complex work environments) theorem to understand operational activities in the lead-up and occurrence of the well blowout. NTS research is used to develop interventions for training and observing safety behaviours (e.g. decision-making, teamwork). Second, we apply safety culture theory to understand how the organisational and industry environment shaped the management of risk. Safety culture research is used to understand and change the socio-technical constraints and enablers of safety activity in high-risk workplaces. Finally, to integrate these perspectives, we take a systems-thinking perspective to understand the mishap. A common critique of accident narratives is their failure to systematically consider how the components of an incident interact together to escalate risk. From a systems-thinking perspective, understanding the interactions leading to the DH mishap is crucial for ensuring interventions are effective in preventing future mishaps. We develop an accident model that captures the various interactions and system factors leading to the blowout. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Campbell C.,Institute of Social Psychology | Cornish F.,Glasgow Caledonian University
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2010

Many biomedical and behavioural HIV/AIDS programmes aimed at prevention, care and treatment have disappointing outcomes because of a lack of effective community mobilisation. But community mobilisation is notoriously difficult to bring about. We present a conceptual framework that maps out those dimensions of social context that are likely to support or undermine community mobilisation efforts, proposing that attention should be given to three dimensions of social context: the material, symbolic and relational. This paper has four parts. We begin by outlining why community mobilisation is regarded as a core dimension of effective HIV/AIDS management: it increases the reach and sustainability of programmes; it is a vital component of the wider task shifting agenda given the scarcity of health professionals in many HIV/AIDS-vulnerable contexts. Most importantly it facilitates those social psychological processes that we argue are vital preconditions for effective prevention, care and treatment. Secondly we map out three generations of approaches to behaviour change within the HIV/AIDS field: HIV-awareness, peer education and community mobilisation. We critically evaluate each approach's underlying assumptions about the drivers of behaviour change, to frame our understandings of the pathways between mobilisation and health, drawing on the concepts of social capital, dialogue and empowerment. Thirdly we refer to two well-documented case studies of community mobilisation in India and South Africa to illustrate our claim that community mobilisation is unlikely to succeed in the absence of supportive material, symbolic and relational contexts. Fourthly we provide a brief overview of how the papers in this special issue help us flesh out our conceptualisation of the health enabling social environment. We conclude by arguing for the urgent need for a 'fourth generation' of approaches in the theory and practice of HIV/AIDS management, one which pays far greater attention to the wider contextual influences on programme success. © 2010 Taylor and Francis.

As in many other parts of the world, young people in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are considered particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. Young Papua New Guineans' understanding of health and HIV form the basis of their interactions with HIV-prevention programmes, yet literature documenting their views is limited. Participatory research was conducted with 31 youth in two different settings in the Highlands of PNG to analyse their perceptions of factors influencing young people's health in a local context. The participants perceived social and structural factors to have a dominant influence on their health outcomes, in contrast to prevention programmes' focus on individuals. Youth perceived HIV to be less pressing than other everyday health concerns not currently addressed by national programmes, with their resultant frustration undermining the potential of existing HIV-prevention interventions. The young participants' experience of the social spaces developed through Photovoice, the research approach used, demonstrates the potential and limitations of participatory initiatives to support young people's actions to reduce their vulnerability to poor health outcomes. Findings point to the importance of youth-focused intervention programmes engaging influential adults in a community, and supporting in-between spaces where young people and community leaders can connect in order to affect the health-related contexts in which young people live. © 2010 Taylor and Francis.

Reader T.W.,Institute of Social Psychology | Gillespie A.,Institute of Social Psychology
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2013

Background: Patient neglect is an issue of increasing public concern in Europe and North America, yet remains poorly understood. This is the first systematic review on the nature, frequency and causes of patient neglect as distinct from patient safety topics such as medical error. Method. The Pubmed, Science Direct, and Medline databases were searched in order to identify research studies investigating patient neglect. Ten articles and four government reports met the inclusion criteria of reporting primary data on the occurrence or causes of patient neglect. Qualitative and quantitative data extraction investigated (1) the definition of patient neglect, (2) the forms of behaviour associated with neglect, (3) the reported frequency of neglect, and (4) the causes of neglect. Results: Patient neglect is found to have two aspects. First, procedure neglect, which refers to failures of healthcare staff to achieve objective standards of care. Second, caring neglect, which refers to behaviours that lead patients and observers to believe that staff have uncaring attitudes. The perceived frequency of neglectful behaviour varies by observer. Patients and their family members are more likely to report neglect than healthcare staff, and nurses are more likely to report on the neglectful behaviours of other nurses than on their own behaviour. The causes of patient neglect frequently relate to organisational factors (e.g. high workloads that constrain the behaviours of healthcare staff, burnout), and the relationship between carers and patients. Conclusion: A social psychology-based conceptual model is developed to explain the occurrence and nature of patient neglect. This model will facilitate investigations of i) differences between patients and healthcare staff in how they perceive neglect, ii) the association with patient neglect and health outcomes, iii) the relative importance of system and organisational factors in causing neglect, and iv) the design of interventions and health policy to reduce patient neglect. © 2013 Reader and Gillespie; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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