La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

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Velho S.,Portuguese Institute of Oncology Francisco Gentil | Paccaud F.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Waeber G.,Internal Medicine | Vollenweider P.,Internal Medicine | Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective:To estimate the prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) according to different definitions.Methods:Population-based sample of 2803 women and 2557 men participated in the study. Metabolic abnormalities were defined using six sets of criteria, which included different combinations of the following: waist; blood pressure; total, high-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting glucose; homeostasis model assessment; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; personal history of cardiovascular, respiratory or metabolic diseases. For each set, prevalence of MHO was assessed for body mass index (BMI); waist or percent body fat.Results:Among obese (BMI 30 kg/m 2) participants, prevalence of MHO ranged between 3.3 and 32.1% in men and between 11.4 and 43.3% in women according to the criteria used. Using abdominal obesity, prevalence of MHO ranged between 5.7 and 36.7% (men) and 12.2 and 57.5% (women). Using percent body fat led to a prevalence of MHO ranging between 6.4 and 43.1% (men) and 12.0 and 55.5% (women). MHO participants had a lower odd of presenting a family history of type 2 diabetes. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of presenting with MHO decreased with increasing age, whereas no relationship was found with gender, alcohol consumption or tobacco smoking using most sets of criteria. Physical activity was positively related, whereas increased waist was negatively related with BMI-defined MHO.Conclusion:MHO prevalence varies considerably according to the criteria used, underscoring the need for a standard definition of this metabolic entity. Physical activity increases the likelihood of presenting with MHO, and MHO is associated with a lower prevalence of family history of type 2 diabetes. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Paccaud F.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods. Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results: After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions: In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. © 2012 Marques-Vidal and Paccaud; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sarivalasis A.,Rue du Bugnon 44 | Zellweger J.-P.,Swiss Lung Association | Faouzi M.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Daher O.,Health Center Sainte Croix Hospital | And 2 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in asylum seekers (AS) may prevent future cases of tuberculosis. As the screening with Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) is costly, the objective of this study was to assess which factors were associated with LTBI and to define a score allowing the selection of AS with the highest risk of LTBI.Methods: In across-sectional study, AS seekers recently arrived in Vaud County, after screening for tuberculosis at the border were offered screening for LTBI with T-SPOT.TB and questionnaire on potentially risk factors. The factors associated with LTBI were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression.Results: Among 393 adult AS, 98 (24.93%) had a positive IGRA response, five of them with active tuberculosis previously undetected. Six factors associated with LTBI were identified in multivariate analysis: origin, travel conditions, marital status, cough, age and prior TB exposure. Their combination leads to a robust LTBI predictive score.Conclusions: The prevalence of LTBI and active tuberculosis in AS is high. A predictive score integrating six factors could identify the asylum seekers with the highest risk for LTBI. © 2012 Sarivalasis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Reavey M.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Saner H.,University of Bern | Paccaud F.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the periodical patterns of events and deaths related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke in Swiss adults (≥ 18 years). Methods Mortality data for period 1969-2007 (N = 869,863 CVD events) and hospitalization data for period 1997-2008 (N = 959,990 CVD events) were used. The annual, weekly and circadian distribution of CVD-related deaths and events were assessed. Multivariate analysis was conducted using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for age, gender and calendar year and considering deaths from respiratory diseases, accidents or other causes as competitive events. Results CVD deaths and hospitalizations occurred less frequently in the summer months. Similar patterns were found for AMI and stroke. No significant weekly variation for CVD deaths was found. Stratification by age and gender showed subjects aged < 65 years to present a higher probability of dying on Mondays and Saturday, only for men. This finding was confirmed after multivariate adjustment. Finally, a circadian variation in CVD mortality was observed, with a first peak in the morning (8-12 am) and a smaller second peak in the late afternoon (2-6 pm). This pattern persisted after multivariate adjustment and was more pronounced for AMI than for stroke. Conclusion There is a periodicity of hospitalizations and deaths related to CVD, AMI and stroke in Switzerland. This pattern changes slightly according to the age and sex of the subjects. Although the underlying mechanisms are not fully identified, preventive measures should take into account these aspects to develop better strategies of prevention and management of CVD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vaucher J.,Internal Medicine | Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Waeber G.,Internal Medicine | Vollenweider P.,Internal Medicine
Cytokine | Year: 2014

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Low-dose aspirin for CV prevention is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to determine the association between pro-inflammatory cytokines and hs-CRP levels and low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention in a population-based cohort (CoLaus Study). We assessed blood samples in 6085 participants (3201 women) aged 35-75. years. Medications' use and indications were recorded. Among aspirin users (n=1'034; 17%), overall low-dose users (351; 5.8%) and low-dose for cardiovascular prevention users (324; 5.3%) were selected for analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed by a multiplex particle-based flow cytometric assay and hs-CRP by an immunometric assay. Cytokines and hs-CRP were presented in quartiles. Multivariate analysis adjusting for sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and immunomodulatory drugs showed no association between cytokines and hs-CRP levels and low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention, either comparing the topmost vs. the three other quartiles (OR 95% CI, 0.84 (0.59-1.18), 1.03 (0.78-1.32), 1.10 (0.83-1.46), 1.00 (0.67-1.69) for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP, respectively), or comparing the topmost quartile vs. the first one (OR 95% CI, 0.87 (0.60-1.26), 1.19 (0.79-1.79), 1.26 (0.86-1.84), 1.06 (0.67-1.69)). Low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention does not impact plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and hs-CRP levels in a population-based cohort. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Ravasco P.,University of Lisbon | Paccaud F.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: The escalating prevalence of obesity might prompt obese subjects to consider themselves as normal, as this condition is gradually becoming as frequent as normal weight. In this study, we aimed to assess the trends in the associations between obesity and self-rated health in two countries. Methods. Data from the Portuguese (years 1995-6, 1998-6 and 2005-6) and Swiss (1992-3, 1997, 2002 and 2007) National Health Surveys were used, corresponding to more than 130,000 adults (64,793 for Portugal and 65,829 for Switzerland). Body mass index and self-rated health were derived from self-reported data. Results: Obesity levels were higher in Portugal (17.5% in 2005-6 vs. 8.9% in 2007 in Switzerland, p < 0.001) and increased in both countries. The prevalence of participants rating their health as "bad" or "very bad" was higher in Portugal than in Switzerland (21.8% in 2005-6 vs 3.9% in 2007, p < 0.001). In both countries, obese participants rated more frequently their health as "bad" or "very bad" than participants with regular weight. In Switzerland, the prevalence of "bad" or "very bad" rates among obese participants, increased from 6.5% in 1992-3 to 9.8% in 2007, while in Portugal it decreased from 41.3% to 32.3%. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of stating one self's health as "bad" or "very bad" among obese relative to normal weight participants, almost doubled in Switzerland: from 1.38 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.87) in 1992-3 to 2.64 (95% CI: 2.14-3.26) in 2007, and similar findings were obtained after sample weighting. Conversely, no such trend was found in Portugal: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-1.48) in 1995-6 and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.37-1.70) in 2005-6. Conclusion: Obesity is increasing in Switzerland and Portugal. Obesity is increasingly associated with poorer self-health ratings in Switzerland but not in Portugal. © 2012 Marques-Vidal et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Paccaud F.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Ravasco P.,University of Lisbon
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: There is little information regarding the trends in body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the overall Portuguese population, namely if these trends are similar according to educational level. In this study, we assessed the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population, overall and by educational level. Methods. Cross-sectional national health interview surveys conducted in 1995-6 (n = 38,504), 1998-9 (n = 38,688) and 2005-6 (n = 25,348). Data were derived from the population and housing census of 1991 and two geographically-based strata were defined. The sampling unit was the house, and all subjects living in the sampling unit were surveyed. Height and weight were self-reported; the effects of gender, age group and educational level were also assessed by self-reported structured questionnaires. Bivariate comparisons were performed using Chi-square or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trends in BMI levels were assessed by linear regression analysis, while trends in the prevalence of obesity were assessed by logistic regression. Results: Mean (standard deviation) BMI increased from 25.2 4.0 in 1995-6 to 25.7 4.5 kg/m2 in 2005-6. Prevalence of overweight remained stable (36.1% in 1995-6 and 36.4% in 2005) while prevalence of obesity increased (11.5% in 1995-6 and 15.1% in 2005-6). Similar findings were observed according to age group. Mean age-adjusted BMI increase (expressed in kg/m2/year and 95% confidence interval) was 0.073 (0.062, 0.084), 0.016 (0.000, 0.031) and 0.073 (0.049, 0.098) in men with primary, secondary and university levels, respectively; the corresponding values in women were 0.085 (0.073, 0.097), 0.052 (0.035, 0.069) and 0.062 (0.038, 0.084). Relative to 1995-6, obesity rates increased by 48%, 41% and 59% in men and by 40%, 75% and 177% in women with primary, secondary and university levels, respectively. The corresponding values for overweight were 6%, 1% and 23% in men and 5%, 7% and 65% in women. Conclusion: Between 1995 and 2005, obesity increased while overweight remained stable in the adult Portuguese population. Although higher rates were found among lesser educated subjects, the strong increase in BMI and obesity levels in highly educated subjects is of concern. © 2011Marques-Vidal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lyngdoh T.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Vollenweider P.,Batiment Hospitalier | Waeber G.,Batiment Hospitalier | Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2011

Purpose: A pleiotropic effect of statins has been reported in numerous studies. However, the association between statin use and inflammatory cytokines is controversial. We examined the associations between statin use and C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a healthy Caucasian population. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 6184 participants aged 35-75. years from Lausanne, Switzerland. Cytokines were assessed by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometric assay. Self-reported history of medication was collected for statins and other medication. 99 participants without cytokine data were excluded. Results: Among the 6085 participants, 2289 (37.6%), 451 (7.4%) and 43 (0.7%) had IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels below detection limits, respectively. On multivariate analysis adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, baseline cardiovascular disease, total cholesterol, anti-inflammatory use, other cytokine modifying drugs and other drugs, participants on statins had significantly lower CRP levels (adjusted mean ± standard error: 1.22 ± 1.05 vs. 1.38 ± 1.04. mg/L for use and non-use, respectively, p< 0.01 on log-transformed data). Conversely, no association was found between statin use and IL-1β (p= 0.91), IL-6 (p= 0.25) or TNF-α (p= 0.28) levels. On multivariate analysis, individuals in the statin group (β coefficient = -0.12; 95% CI = -0.21, -0.03) had lower levels of CRP as compared to those in the reference group (i.e. those not using statin). However, no significant associations were observed between IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and statins. Conclusion: Individuals on statins have lower CRP levels; conversely, no effect was found for IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

PubMed | University of Lausanne and Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP
Type: | Journal: Cardiovascular diabetology | Year: 2016

Low birth weight is associated with increased rates of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but the precise mechanisms for this association remain unclear. We aimed to assess the relationships between birth weight and markers of glucose homeostasis or obesity in adults.Cross-sectional population-based study on 1458 women and 1088 men aged 35-75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Birth weight was self-reported and categorized into 2.5, 2.6-3.5, 3.6-4.0 and >4.0 kg. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance. Leptin and adiponectin levels were measured by ELISA.Women with low birth weight ( 2.5 kg) had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA, diabetes and metabolic syndrome; a non significant similar trend was seen in men. In both genders, height increased with birth weight, whereas a U-shaped association was found between birth weight and body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage. After adjusting for age, smoking status, physical activity and fat mass, an inverse association was found between leptin and birth weight categories: adjusted mean standard error 17.3 0.7, 16.2 0.3, 15.6 0.5 and 14.0 0.8 ng/dL for birth weight categories 2.5, 2.6-3.5, 3.6-4.0 and >4.0 kg, respectively, in women (p < 0.05) and 9.8 0.8, 9.1 03, 7.8 0.4 and 7.7 0.5 ng/dL in men (p < 0.05). An inverse association was also found between reported birth weight and leptin to fat mass ratio: mean standard error 0.77 0.04, 0.73 0.02, 0.69 0.03 and 0.62 0.04 in women (p < 0.05); 0.46 0.05, 0.45 0.02, 0.39 0.02 and 0.38 0.03 in men (p < 0.05). No differences in adiponectin levels were found between birth weight groups.Middle-aged adults born with a low weight present a higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity and also higher leptin levels and leptin to fat mass ratio than adults born with a normal weight. The higher leptin levels and leptin to fat mass ratio among adults born with a low weight might be related to nutritional factors during childhood or to the development of leptin resistance and/or higher leptin production by body fat unit. Subjects born with a low weight should be counselled regarding the risks of developing diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

PubMed | Robert Bosch GmbH, University of Lausanne, Elisabeth Hospital, University of Heidelberg and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance | Year: 2016

Coronary artery disease (CAD) continues to be one of the top public health burden. Perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is generally accepted to detect CAD, while data on its cost effectiveness are scarce. Therefore, the goal of the study was to compare the costs of a CMR-guided strategy vs two invasive strategies in a large CMR registry.In 3647 patients with suspected CAD of the EuroCMR-registry (59 centers/18 countries) costs were calculated for diagnostic examinations (CMR, X-ray coronary angiography (CXA) with/without FFR), revascularizations, and complications during a 1-year follow-up. Patients with ischemia-positive CMR underwent an invasive CXA and revascularization at the discretion of the treating physician (=CMR+CXA-strategy). In the hypothetical invasive arm, costs were calculated for an initial CXA and a FFR in vessels with 50% stenoses (=CXA+FFR-strategy) and the same proportion of revascularizations and complications were applied as in the CMR+CXA-strategy. In the CXA-only strategy, costs included those for CXA and for revascularizations of all 50% stenoses. To calculate the proportion of patients with 50% stenoses, the stenosis-FFR relationship from the literature was used. Costs of the three strategies were determined based on a third payer perspective in 4 healthcare systems.Revascularizations were performed in 6.2%, 4.5%, and 12.9% of all patients, patients with atypical chest pain (n=1786), and typical angina (n=582), respectively; whereas complications (=all-cause death and non-fatal infarction) occurred in 1.3%, 1.1%, and 1.5%, respectively. The CMR+CXA-strategy reduced costs by 14%, 34%, 27%, and 24% in the German, UK, Swiss, and US context, respectively, when compared to the CXA+FFR-strategy; and by 59%, 52%, 61% and 71%, respectively, versus the CXA-only strategy. In patients with typical angina, cost savings by CMR+CXA vs CXA+FFR were minimal in the German (2.3%), intermediate in the US and Swiss (11.6% and 12.8%, respectively), and remained substantial in the UK (18.9%) systems. Sensitivity analyses proved the robustness of results.A CMR+CXA-strategy for patients with suspected CAD provides substantial cost reduction compared to a hypothetical CXA+FFR-strategy in patients with low to intermediate disease prevalence. However, in the subgroup of patients with typical angina, cost savings were only minimal to moderate.

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