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La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

Vaucher J.,Internal Medicine | Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Waeber G.,Internal Medicine | Vollenweider P.,Internal Medicine
Cytokine | Year: 2014

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Low-dose aspirin for CV prevention is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to determine the association between pro-inflammatory cytokines and hs-CRP levels and low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention in a population-based cohort (CoLaus Study). We assessed blood samples in 6085 participants (3201 women) aged 35-75. years. Medications' use and indications were recorded. Among aspirin users (n=1'034; 17%), overall low-dose users (351; 5.8%) and low-dose for cardiovascular prevention users (324; 5.3%) were selected for analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed by a multiplex particle-based flow cytometric assay and hs-CRP by an immunometric assay. Cytokines and hs-CRP were presented in quartiles. Multivariate analysis adjusting for sex, age, smoking status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and immunomodulatory drugs showed no association between cytokines and hs-CRP levels and low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention, either comparing the topmost vs. the three other quartiles (OR 95% CI, 0.84 (0.59-1.18), 1.03 (0.78-1.32), 1.10 (0.83-1.46), 1.00 (0.67-1.69) for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP, respectively), or comparing the topmost quartile vs. the first one (OR 95% CI, 0.87 (0.60-1.26), 1.19 (0.79-1.79), 1.26 (0.86-1.84), 1.06 (0.67-1.69)). Low-dose aspirin use for cardiovascular prevention does not impact plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and hs-CRP levels in a population-based cohort. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Sarivalasis A.,Rue du Bugnon 44 | Zellweger J.-P.,Swiss Lung Association | Faouzi M.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Daher O.,Health Center Sainte Croix Hospital | And 2 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in asylum seekers (AS) may prevent future cases of tuberculosis. As the screening with Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) is costly, the objective of this study was to assess which factors were associated with LTBI and to define a score allowing the selection of AS with the highest risk of LTBI.Methods: In across-sectional study, AS seekers recently arrived in Vaud County, after screening for tuberculosis at the border were offered screening for LTBI with T-SPOT.TB and questionnaire on potentially risk factors. The factors associated with LTBI were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression.Results: Among 393 adult AS, 98 (24.93%) had a positive IGRA response, five of them with active tuberculosis previously undetected. Six factors associated with LTBI were identified in multivariate analysis: origin, travel conditions, marital status, cough, age and prior TB exposure. Their combination leads to a robust LTBI predictive score.Conclusions: The prevalence of LTBI and active tuberculosis in AS is high. A predictive score integrating six factors could identify the asylum seekers with the highest risk for LTBI. © 2012 Sarivalasis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Ravasco P.,University of Lisbon | Paccaud F.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: The escalating prevalence of obesity might prompt obese subjects to consider themselves as normal, as this condition is gradually becoming as frequent as normal weight. In this study, we aimed to assess the trends in the associations between obesity and self-rated health in two countries. Methods. Data from the Portuguese (years 1995-6, 1998-6 and 2005-6) and Swiss (1992-3, 1997, 2002 and 2007) National Health Surveys were used, corresponding to more than 130,000 adults (64,793 for Portugal and 65,829 for Switzerland). Body mass index and self-rated health were derived from self-reported data. Results: Obesity levels were higher in Portugal (17.5% in 2005-6 vs. 8.9% in 2007 in Switzerland, p < 0.001) and increased in both countries. The prevalence of participants rating their health as "bad" or "very bad" was higher in Portugal than in Switzerland (21.8% in 2005-6 vs 3.9% in 2007, p < 0.001). In both countries, obese participants rated more frequently their health as "bad" or "very bad" than participants with regular weight. In Switzerland, the prevalence of "bad" or "very bad" rates among obese participants, increased from 6.5% in 1992-3 to 9.8% in 2007, while in Portugal it decreased from 41.3% to 32.3%. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of stating one self's health as "bad" or "very bad" among obese relative to normal weight participants, almost doubled in Switzerland: from 1.38 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.87) in 1992-3 to 2.64 (95% CI: 2.14-3.26) in 2007, and similar findings were obtained after sample weighting. Conversely, no such trend was found in Portugal: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-1.48) in 1995-6 and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.37-1.70) in 2005-6. Conclusion: Obesity is increasing in Switzerland and Portugal. Obesity is increasingly associated with poorer self-health ratings in Switzerland but not in Portugal. © 2012 Marques-Vidal et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Paccaud F.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Ravasco P.,University of Lisbon
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: There is little information regarding the trends in body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the overall Portuguese population, namely if these trends are similar according to educational level. In this study, we assessed the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population, overall and by educational level. Methods. Cross-sectional national health interview surveys conducted in 1995-6 (n = 38,504), 1998-9 (n = 38,688) and 2005-6 (n = 25,348). Data were derived from the population and housing census of 1991 and two geographically-based strata were defined. The sampling unit was the house, and all subjects living in the sampling unit were surveyed. Height and weight were self-reported; the effects of gender, age group and educational level were also assessed by self-reported structured questionnaires. Bivariate comparisons were performed using Chi-square or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trends in BMI levels were assessed by linear regression analysis, while trends in the prevalence of obesity were assessed by logistic regression. Results: Mean (standard deviation) BMI increased from 25.2 4.0 in 1995-6 to 25.7 4.5 kg/m2 in 2005-6. Prevalence of overweight remained stable (36.1% in 1995-6 and 36.4% in 2005) while prevalence of obesity increased (11.5% in 1995-6 and 15.1% in 2005-6). Similar findings were observed according to age group. Mean age-adjusted BMI increase (expressed in kg/m2/year and 95% confidence interval) was 0.073 (0.062, 0.084), 0.016 (0.000, 0.031) and 0.073 (0.049, 0.098) in men with primary, secondary and university levels, respectively; the corresponding values in women were 0.085 (0.073, 0.097), 0.052 (0.035, 0.069) and 0.062 (0.038, 0.084). Relative to 1995-6, obesity rates increased by 48%, 41% and 59% in men and by 40%, 75% and 177% in women with primary, secondary and university levels, respectively. The corresponding values for overweight were 6%, 1% and 23% in men and 5%, 7% and 65% in women. Conclusion: Between 1995 and 2005, obesity increased while overweight remained stable in the adult Portuguese population. Although higher rates were found among lesser educated subjects, the strong increase in BMI and obesity levels in highly educated subjects is of concern. © 2011Marques-Vidal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Marques-Vidal P.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Bochud M.,Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP | Bastardot F.,Internal Medicine | Luscher T.,University of Zurich | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Objective: to assess the levels and determinants of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a healthy Caucasian population. Methods: population sample of 2884 men and 3201 women aged 35 to 75. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were assessed by a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometric assay and CRP by an immunometric assay. Results: Spearman rank correlations between duplicate cytokine measurements (N = 80) ranged between 0.89 and 0.96; intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.94 and 0.97, indicating good reproducibility. Among the 6085 participants, 2289 (37.6%), 451 (7.4%) and 43 (0.7%) had IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels below detection limits, respectively. Median (interquartile range) for participants with detectable values were 1.17 (0.48-3.90) pg/ml for IL-1β; 1.47 (0.71-3.53) pg/ml for IL-6; 2.89 (1.82-4.53) pg/ml for TNF-α and 1.3 (0.6-2.7) ng/ml for CRP. On multivariate analysis, greater age was the only factor inversely associated with IL-1β levels. Male sex, increased BMI and smoking were associated with greater IL-6 levels, while no relationship was found for age and leisure-time PA. Male sex, greater age, increased BMI and current smoking were associated with greater TNF-α levels, while no relationship was found with leisure-time PA. CRP levels were positively related to age, BMI and smoking, and inversely to male sex and physical activity. Conclusion: Population-based levels of several cytokines were established. Increased age and BMI, and to a lesser degree sex and smoking, significantly and differentially impact cytokine levels, while leisure-time physical activity has little effect. © 2011 Marques-Vidal et al. Source

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