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Nounou H.A.,King Saud University | Ali S.M.,Alexandria University | Shalaby M.A.,King Saud University | Shalaby M.A.,Institute of Science Biotechnology
Asian Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Background: Childhood disability is a public health con-cern due to their impacts on quality of life and productivity not only for affected children but also for families and populations as a whole. There are at least 650 million people with disabilities worldwide. Objective: To identify the major biological predictors of disabilities in children, the potential pre-natal, natal, and post-natal risk factors for the disabled children in Riyadh rural areas. Materials and Methods: A survey of 450 Saudi children, pre-school and school age children, below 20 years was carried out between October 2010 and March 2011 with approval by the Institutional Review Board. The study was conducted from children day care center at Riyadh rural area. Data were collected from the case files by clinical staff. Results: Children with motor disabilities represented the highest percentage, followed by those having speech, mental, and educational disabilities. The least number of disabilities was the children with auditory deficits. The results of the current study have emphasized certain pre-natal risk factors including extreme ages of mar-riage, high parity, illiteracy, and consanguineous marriages. Consanguinity, multiparty, and mother childbirth age could be considered as a risk factor for mental (risk ratios (RR) 2.06, 95% CI 1.526-2.7), (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6), (RR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6-8.47) and auditory disabilities (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.7-3.76), (RR 2, 95% CI 1.25-3.19), (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.29-5.2). According to our study caesarian labor and prematurity could be considered as a risk factor for motor disability (RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.1), (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.46-4.6) while multiparity, very low birth weight, and prematurity were associated with increased risk for speech disabilities (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.76-1.7), (RR 1.46, 95% CI 0.76-2.76), (RR 7.3, 95% CI 4.9-10.3). In addition, caesarian labor was associated with increased risk for auditory disabilities (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.59-3.49), while multiparity and mother childbirth age were associated with increased risk for visual disabilities (RR 5.6, 95% CI 4.1-8.27), (RR 7.2, 95% CI 4.19-12.3). Conclusion: Increasing the knowledge about disabilities' risk factor could reduce the incidence of future disability. Source


Nounou H.A.,King Saud University | Nounou H.A.,Alexandria University | Ali S.M.,Alexandria University | Shalaby M.A.,King Saud University | And 2 more authors.
Asian Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Background: Water is a valuable resource in Saudi Arabia. There are untreated wells scattered throughout villages that are sources of drinking water for some rural residents.Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the quality of bottled and tap water as well as water from wells in the rural areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Material and Methods: Water samples (n = 300) were randomly collected from bottles, taps, and wells.Bacteriological examination of samples included total and fecal coliforms. Screening was performed using wet mounts, trichrome stain, and a modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Total dissolved salts (TDS) were determined using a conductivity meter.Results: There were no coliforms in samples taken from bottled water, whereas, they were detected in samples taken from tap and well water with percentages of 11%, 30% respectively (p = 0.0001). No fecal coliforms were detected in any of the bottled water samples. However, they were isolated from tap (7%) and well water samples(22%), p = 0.001. Escherichia coli content was found to have the highest percentage distribution compared with other coliforms subtypes in both tap and well water. Parasitological analysis detected only few cysts of Entameba coli in both tap (3%) and well (4%) samples while Giardia lamblia cysts (2%) were only detected in well water. There was a wide variation in concentrations of TDS in the 300 water samples. Chemical analysis of well water showed levels above the maximum limits of Saudi and international recommended standards and guidelines for salinity of drinking water.Conclusion: Water derived from wells in rural areas of Riyadh showed microbial contamination and high total dissolved solids. Source


Shalaby M.A.,Institute of Science Biotechnology | Shalaby M.A.,King Saud University | Nounou H.A.,King Saud University | Nounou H.A.,Alexandria University | Arafah M.,King Saud University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013

The expression patterns of Plexin D1 in endothelial cells during developmental angiogenesis and in the vascular coating of specific tumors empahsize this protein as a potentially powerful tool as a diagnostic tumour biomarker in different types of cancer. Various tumour samples (n= 31) (11 brain, 8 breast, 12 thyroid) were compared to 33 control samples for the expression of Plexin D1 using immunohistochemical analysis. Plexin D1 was detected in most of the endothelial cells of the various cancer samples [brain cancer (63.6%), breast cancer (66.7%) and thyroid cancer (75%)], yet no expression could be detected in endothelial cells of normal tissues. Our results verify the role of Plexin D1 in brain, breast and thyroid cancer associated angiogenesis. Regarding the implications of Plexin D1 and its associations with cancer angiogenesis it might be a potential cancer biomarker providing that further studies confirm the present preliminary findings. Source


Nounou H.,Alexandria University | Nounou H.,King Saud University | Attia H.,King Saud University | Attia H.,Mansoura University | And 3 more authors.
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013

This study aimed to investigate the toxicity of oral ZnONPs on the rat's lung. Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats. Groups I and II were treated orally with 40 and 100 mg/kg ZnONPs for 24 hrs. Groups III and IV received daily 40 and 100 mg/kg ZnONPs orally for 1 week. Ten untreated rats were used as control. Oral administration of ZnONPs induced eosinophilia and lymphocytes infiltration in the lungs in the four tested groups that peaked at 100 mg/kg/day for 1 week. Lipid peroxidation was significantly higher, while levels of reduced glutathione and catalase activity were lower in all ZnONPs-treated groups. Nitrite concentrations increased significantly in rat's lung treated with 100 mg/kg for 24 hrs and in those treated with 40 and 100 mg/kg daily for 1 week. Levels of lung TNF-α were significantly higher after 24 hrs at high dose and after 1 week at both low and high doses. Interleukin-1β and pentraxin-3 levels were significantly increased at 1 week only at both low and high doses. There were lower levels of paraoxonase-1 and increased DNA damage in the four studied groups. Oral administration of ZnONPs induced lung injury possibly through oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage. Source

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