Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR

Gujarat, India

Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR

Gujarat, India
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Nirmal Kumar J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Patel K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Bhoi R.K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

The study analyses the fuelwood characteristics of 26 trees including shrub species from the dry deciduous forest in Aravally region, Rajasthan, Western India was carried out to explore trees with potential for fuelwood production. Fuelwood value index (FVI) based on the properties of calorific value, wood density and ash. Calorific value was ranged between 18.54±0.04 and 27.44±0.09KJg -1 in Jatropha curcus and Wrightia tinctoria respectively. Wood density varied from 0.538±0.01 to 0.966±0.07g/cm 3 in J. curcus and Acacia nilotica. Same way ash and moisture content was highest in J. curcus (3.38±0.19%) and Sterculia urens (70.28±7.52%) and lowest in Miliusa tomentosa (0.85±0.06%) and Azadirachta indica (30.7±10.02%) respectively. On the basis, of the 26 species analyzed, M. tomentosa has the highest FVI, followed by Lannea coromandelica, Acacia leucophloea, Madhuca indica, A. nilotica, W. tinctoria, Butea monosperma, Zizyphus nummularia, S. urens, Boswellia serrata, A. indica, Grewia tenax, Syzygium cuminii, Tectona grandis and Dalbergia sissoo were shown to have promising fuelwood production. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


George B.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Nirmal Kumar J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research | Year: 2012

Physicochemical properties play a major role in determining the density, diversity and occurrence of phytoplankton in an estuarine ecosystem. The present study is conducted to assess the relationship between physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton assemblages which in turn can serve as a suitable method to assess the quality of estuarine ecosystem. Results showed an increased concentration in physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton density during post-monsoon season followed by pre-monsoon and monsoon season. Canonical correspondence Analysis (CCA) between environmental variables and dominant taxa of phytoplankton indicated the influence of freshwater on phytoplankton distribution in the estuarine precinct. © 2013 National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries.


Kumar J.I.N.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the river water and sediment quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of trace metals contamination, water and sediment samples were collected from five different sites along the course of Sabarmati River and its tributary Kharicut canal in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of trace metals such as chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc was determined using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be higher in the pre-monsoon season than in the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in water samples. The pollution load index, contamination factor and degree of contamination (C d) in sediments were calculated to know the extent of anthropogenic pressures. The values of C d clearly indicated very high degree of contamination at Kharicut canal (S-4: 32.25 and S-5: 54.52) and considerable degree of contamination at three sites of Sabarmati river viz; S-1, S-2 and S-3 with values 14.30, 14.42 and 17.21, respectively. Lead and nickel could not be traced in any of the river water samples. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Verma S.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | De B.K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The soil-derived fungus Emericella sp. was explored for its potential to produce lipid. Lipid profile, fatty acid composition, production of proteins and carbohydrates from lipid-extracted biomass were determined. The effects of variations in the contents of carbon sources (glucose, dextrose), the salt content (NaCl) and the growth period were studied. A study on the effect of different growing media on the abovementioned parameters was also carried out. Although the maximum amount of lipid (6.14 ± 0.42 g/L) and protein (5.99 ± 0.47 g/L) was produced after 13 days in medium A containing 10% wt/vol glucose, the optimum lipid (2.90 ± 0.21 g/L) and protein (3.23 ± 0.28 g/L) production was observed in 2% wt/vol glucose medium considering the glucose content in the medium. The principal fatty acids found were 16:0 (14.4 ± 1.0 to 24.5 ± 2.4 wt-%), 18:0 (12.1 ± 0.4 to 27.7 ± 2.7 wt-%), 18:1 (13.5 ± 2.1 to 25.2 ± 2.8wt-%) and 18:2 (30.9 ± 2.0 to 47.0 ± 2.8 wt-%). Some of the lipids, especially those grown for 7 days in less glucose-containing (1 and 2% wt/vol) medium were found to contain nearly 9.0 wt-% of long-chain PUFA 18:4, 20:4, 20:5, 22:4, and 22:5). © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Jayakumar N.,University of Malaya | Hashim M.A.,University of Malaya | Thomas M.T.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Chemical Engineering and Technology | Year: 2010

Multiplicity analysis gives practical guidance for process design to eliminate difficult operating regions associated with input and output multiplicities. Continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) present challenging operational problems due to complex behavior such as input and output multiplicities, ignition/extinction, parametric sensitivity, and nonlinear oscillations. In the absence of a unified mathematical theory for representing various nonlinear system characteristics, the present study was aimed at understanding the dynamic behavior of CSTRs by means of experiments and to link the experimental data to theoretical considerations for further detection and elimination of operating problems. Theoretical modeling and analysis of a non-isothermal CSTR with acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of an acetic anhydride system for input multiplicity are discussed. Theoretical modeling of a non-isothermal CSTR using a root-finding technique was carried out for predicting steady-state temperatures. Alternatively, a mathematical model for a non-isothermal CSTR using unsteady-state mass and energy balance equations is proposed. Computer-based simulation was carried out using a program developed in MATLAB for final transient temperature and time-temperature data of the CSTR system under investigation. The results of a theoretical analysis conducted for confirming the existence of input multiplicity in non-isothermal CSTRs with acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetic anhydride were compared with experimental investigations for validation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Nirmal Kumar J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Amb M.K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Bora A.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2010

Study was carried out to investigate the chronic response of cyanobacteria, Anabaena fertilissima to chlorophenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophynoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) ethyl ester at different concentrations 15, 30 and 60. ppm. The influence of 2,4-D on growth (pigments), release of metabolites such as carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, phenols and nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities was analyzed. The test concentrations caused a concentration-dependent decrease in pigments. Depletion in carbohydrate and protein content was registered with rise in herbicide concentrations. However, phenols were found to rise with increased herbicide concentrations but amino acids were reported to decline. The inhibition of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity was also concentration-dependent and showed more sensitivity for substituted phenoxy herbicide. This study therefore suggests that decrease in metabolite content and enzyme activity can be used as a signal of herbicide toxicity in cyanobacteria. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Nirmal Kumar J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Kumar R.N.,PURE Bioscience | Bhoi R.K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Sajish P.R.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Tropical Ecology | Year: 2010

The present work aimed to study the tree species diversity and soil nutrient status in three sites of tropical dry deciduous forest of western India (23° 3′ N latitude to 69° 30′ E, 23° 3′ N latitude to 70° 32′ E and 23° 3′ N latitude to 72° 33′ E). A total of 93 tree species of 85 genera belonging to 24 families were encountered. The tree stand density varied from 458-728 individuals ha-1 with the average basal area ranging from 5.96 - 19.31 m2 ha-1. Shannon-Weiner Index (H') ranged from 0.67 - 0.79. The Simpson Index of dominance varied from 0.08 - 0.16, the Margalef's Species Richness Index varied from 21.41 - 23.71, Equitability or evenness index varied from 0.02 - 0.05, the species heterogeneity index varied from 2.53 - 3.61 and β diversity varied from 2.05 - 4.87. A greater number of tree species fell in 41 - 50 cm DBH followed by 21 - 30 cm, 0 - 10 cm diameter class, but less number of tree individuals are represented in above 100 cm diameter class. The Combretaceae was represented by the highest number of species (9 spp.) followed by Rutaceae (7 spp.). Each of the individual soil variables showed a high positive correlation with tree species richness while tree density showed a clearly negative correlation with variables like phosphorous and nitrogen and positive correlation with carbon. © International Society for Tropical Ecology.


Nirmal Kumar J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Bora A.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Kaur Amb M.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

This study explored the chronic effects of different doses of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole on the growth, and metabolic and enzymatic functions of the filamentous paddy field cyanobacterium, Westiellopsis prolifica Janet. The growth of the cyanobacterium was determined by an estimation of the change in pigment contents. Chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, and accessory pigments such as phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, and phycoerythrin were shown to decline over a 16-day period by a factor of 92%, 93%, 83%, 95%, and 100%, respectively, with increasing doses of the fungicide. Metabolic and enzymatic activities were also adversely affected. Over the 16 days, a gradual rise in total phenol content was recorded when Westiellopsis prolifica Janet was treated with 60 ppm of the fungicide, despite the reduction in carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids by 96%, 92%, and 90%, respectively. Moreover, the enzymes nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) also registered reductions of 93%, 90%, and 98%, respectively. This study indicates that tebuconazole, although an important fungicide used extensively in rice fields, exhibits an inhibitory effect on the growth and metabolic activities of Westiellopsis prolifica Janet and hence possibly on other varieties as well. © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.


Nirmal K.J.I.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR | Oommen C.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
Applied Ecology and Environmental Research | Year: 2011

A limnological investigation was carried out in Tropical Community Wetland, Kanewal, Gujarat, India from June 2007 to May 2008. Water quality parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, secchi depth, total solids and total dissolved and suspended solids, free carbon dioxide, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity, carbonates, bicarbonates, total hardness, calcium and magnesium hardness, chloride, phosphate, sulphate and nitrate and phytoplankton composition were investigated during the study period. Correlation coefficients were calculated among the various physicochemical variables and phytoplankton groups. Sulphate and nitrate both showed a positive correlation with phosphate. However, dissolved oxygen showed a negative correlation with phosphate, sulphate and nitrate at both the sites. Pearson Product Analysis for phytoplankton at the two sites was performed and it showed a high significance of Bacillariophyceae members between both the sites than other two groups. A total of 45 species were identified belonging to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae but members of Euglenophyceae were found to be absent indicating a lesser degree of organic pollution. Moreover, species of Bacillariophyceae were recorded to be the most occurred group compared to others throughout the study which shows relatively unpolluted nature of wetland. © 2011, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary.


Chaubey N.K.,Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research ISTAR
International Journal of Security and its Applications | Year: 2016

Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is a technology that has been recently emerged, and brings a lot of research interests. Security is one of the important issues in VANET, it is considered a critical point in the development of robust VANET applications. In this paper, various dimensions of VANETs including its emerging applications, security issues, challenges, security threats and the existing solutions proposed by the different researchers are studied. Also author reviewed various type of VANET simulator available and presented possible key research area of VANETs. © 2016 SERSC.

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