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Rubio-Moscardo F.,University Pompeu Fabra | Seto-Salvia N.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Pera M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Bosch-Morato M.,University Pompeu Fabra | And 41 more authors.

Calcium signaling in the brain is fundamental to the learning and memory process and there is evidence to suggest that its dysfunction is involved in the pathological pathways underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, the calcium hypothesis of AD has received support with the identification of the non-selective Ca2+-permeable channel CALHM1. A genetic polymorphism (p. P86L) in CALHM1 reduces plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability and is associated with an earlier age-at-onset of AD. To investigate the role of CALHM1 variants in early-onset AD (EOAD), we sequenced all CALHM1 coding regions in three independent series comprising 284 EOAD patients and 326 controls. Two missense mutations in patients (p.G330D and p.R154H) and one (p.A213T) in a control individual were identified. Calcium imaging analyses revealed that while the mutation found in a control (p.A213T) behaved as wild-type CALHM1 (CALHM1-WT), a complete abolishment of the Ca2+ influx was associated with the mutations found in EOAD patients (p.G330D and p.R154H). Notably, the previously reported p. P86L mutation was associated with an intermediate Ca2+ influx between the CALHM1-WT and the p.G330D and p.R154H mutations. Since neither expression of wild-type nor mutant CALHM1 affected amyloid ß-peptide (Aß) production or Aß-mediated cellular toxicity, we conclude that rare genetic variants in CALHM1 lead to Ca2+ dysregulation and may contribute to the risk of EOAD through a mechanism independent from the classical Aß cascade. © 2013 Rubio-Moscardo et al. Source

Calero O.,CIBER ISCIII | Calero O.,Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,Institute of Sanitary Research Hospital la Paz IdIPaz | And 19 more authors.

The β site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting β-secretase enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of APP and Aβ formation, and therefore it has a prominent role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Recent evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP) interacts directly with BACE1 regulating its β-secretase activity. Moreover, PrP has been proposed as the cellular receptor involved in the impairment of synaptic plasticity and toxicity caused by Aβ oligomers. Provided that common pathophysiologic mechanisms are shared by Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) diseases, we investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge a possible association of a common synonymous BACE1 polymorphism (rs638405) with sporadic CJD (sCJD). Our results indicate that BACE1 C-allele is associated with an increased risk for developing sCJD, mainly in PRNP M129M homozygous subjects with early onset. These results extend the very short list of genes (other than PRNP) involved in the development of human prion diseases; and support the notion that similar to AD, in sCJD several loci may contribute with modest overall effects to disease risk. These findings underscore the interplay in both pathologies of APP, Aβ oligomers, ApoE, PrP and BACE1, and suggest that aging and perhaps vascular risk factors may modulate disease pathologies in part through these key players. © 2012 Calero et al. Source

Calero O.,CIBER ISCIII | Calero O.,Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,Institute of Sanitary Research Hospital la Paz IdIPaz | And 20 more authors.

Perturbations of calcium homeostasis have been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders. A common polymorphism (rs2986017) in the CALHM1 gene, coding for a regulator of calcium homeostasis, is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some authors failed to confirm these results, a meta-analysis has shown that this polymorphism modulates the age at disease onset. Furthermore, a recent association study has explored the genetic variability of CALHM1 gene and two adjacent paralog genes (CALHM3 and CALHM2) in an Asian population. Since several lines of evidence suggest that AD and prion diseases share pathophysiologic mechanisms, we investigated for the first time the genetic variability of the gene cluster formed by CALHM1 and its paralogs in a series of 235 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients, and compared the genotypic and allelic frequencies with those presented in 329 controls from the same ancestry. As such, this work also represents the first association analysis of CALHM genes in sCJD. Sequencing analysis of the complete coding regions of the genes demonstrated the presence of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the CALHM genes. We observed that rs4918016-rs2986017-rs2986018 and rs41287502-rs41287500 polymorphic sites at CALHM1 were in linkage disequilibrium. We found marginal associations for sCJD risk at CALHM1 polymorphic sites rs41287502 and rs41287500 [coding for two linked missense mutations p.(Met323Ile); (Gly282Cys)], and rs2986017 [p.(Leu86Pro)]. Interestingly, a TGG haplotype defined by the rs4918016- rs2986017-rs2986018 block was associated with sCJD. These findings underscore the need of future multinational collaborative initiatives in order to corroborate these seminal data. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source

Ruiz A.,Institute Catala Of Neurociencies Aplicades | Dols-Icardo O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Dols-Icardo O.,CIBER ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 47 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging

A non-synonymous genetic rare variant, rs75932628-T (p.R47H), in the TREM2 gene has recently been reported to be a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Also, rare recessive mutations have been associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We aimed to investigate the role of p.R47H variant in AD and FTD through a multi-center study comprising 3172 AD and 682 FTD patients and 2169 healthy controls from Spain. We found that 0.6% of AD patients carried this variant compared to 0.1% of controls (odds ratio [OR]= 4.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.21-14.00, p= 0.014). A meta-analysis comprising 32,598 subjects from 4 previous studies demonstrated the large effect of the p.R47H variant in AD risk (OR= 4.11, 95% CI= 2.99-5.68, p= 5.27×10-18). We did not find an association between p.R47H and age of onset of AD or family history of dementia. Finally, none of the FTD patients harbored this genetic variant. These data strongly support the important role of p.R47H in AD risk, and suggest that this rare genetic variant is not related to FTD. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Pastor P.,University of Navarra | Pastor P.,CIBER ISCIII | Pastor P.,University of Barcelona | Moreno F.,CIBER ISCIII | And 62 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

The MAPT H1 haplotype has been linked to several disorders, but its relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. A rare variant in MAPT (p.A152T) has been linked with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and AD. We genotyped H1/H2 and p.A152T MAPT in 11,572 subjects from Spain (4,327 AD, 563 FTD, 648 Parkinson's disease (PD), 84 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 5,950 healthy controls). Additionally, we included 101 individuals from 21 families with genetic FTD. MAPT p.A152T was borderline significantly associated with FTD [odds ratio (OR)=2.03; p=0.063], but not with AD. MAPT H1 haplotype was associated with AD risk (OR=1.12; p=0.0005). Stratification analysis showed that this association was mainly driven by APOE ε4 noncarriers (OR=1.14; p=0.0025). MAPT H1 was also associated with risk for PD (OR=1.30; p=0.0003) and PSP (OR=3.18; p=8.59 × 10-8) but not FTD. Our results suggest that the MAPT H1 haplotype increases the risk of PD, PSP, and non-APOE ε4 AD. © 2016 - IOS Press and the authors. Source

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