Walker R.,Oxford Institute of Social Policy |
Kyomuhendo G.B.,Makerere University |
Chase E.,Oxford Institute of Social Policy |
Choudhry S.,Oxford Institute of Social Policy |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Social Policy | Year: 2013
Focussing on the psychosocial dimensions of poverty, the contention that shame lies at the 'irreducible absolutist core' of the idea of poverty is examined through qualitative research with adults and children experiencing poverty in diverse settings in seven countries: rural Uganda and India; urban China; Pakistan; South Korea and United Kingdom; and small town and urban Norway. Accounts of the lived experience of poverty were found to be very similar, despite massive disparities in material circumstances associated with locally defined poverty lines, suggesting that relative notions of poverty are an appropriate basis for international comparisons. Though socially and culturally nuanced, shame was found to be associated with poverty in each location, variably leading to pretence, withdrawal, self-loathing, 'othering', despair, depression, thoughts of suicide and generally to reductions in personal efficacy. While internally felt, poverty-related shame was equally imposed by the attitudes and behaviour of those not in poverty, framed by public discourse and influenced by the objectives and implementation of anti-poverty policy. The evidence appears to confirm the negative consequences of shame, implicates it as a factor in increasing the persistence of poverty and suggests important implications for the framing, design and delivery of anti-poverty policies. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.
Kumar A.,Institute of Rural Management |
Sharma P.,Indian Institute of Technology Indore |
Joshi S.,Indian Institute of Technology Indore
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2016
The current study assessed the climate change impacts on land productivity of major food and non-food grain crops in India. We compiled panel data for 30 years (1980-2009) using fifteen crops across thirteen agriculture intensive states. The value of production for each crop is estimated by farm harvest price (at constant prices, 1993-1994). Aggregate value of production on per hectare land is regressed with different socio-economic and climatic factors using the Cobb-Douglas (C-D) production function model. Estimates based on Driscoll-Kraay standard errors and linear regression and correlated Panels Corrected Standard Errors (PCSEs) (Prais-Winsten) estimation indicate that land productivity decreases with increase in annual average maximum temperature. The study concludes that Indian policymakers need to increase more irrigation facilities and fertilizers for cultivation. Land productivity is positively associated with irrigation area, number of pump set and application of fertilizers on per hectare land. In brief, more irrigation facilities; recommended use of fertilizer; more investment in infrastructure; participation of more literate population in agricultural activities; government expenditure on agricultural and allied sectors, rural development, irrigation and flood control would be useful to mitigate the negative effect of climate change on agriculture and improve agricultural productivity (land productivity). Finally, our projected results based on simulation technique showed that climate change would cause a decline in land productivity by 48.63 percent by the year 2100 and loss of farmers’ income in India. © 2016, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.
Alagh Y.K.,Institute of Rural Management
South Asian Survey | Year: 2010
This article briefly outlines the food-water-energy interlinkages for sustainable development in India. It begins by underlining the emerging severe land constraint and relates it to water development strategies since water use not only raises agricultural productivity, but releases the land barrier by intensity of land use. Given this problem, energy becomes a related focus and of course, is by itself another major issue in sustainable development and long-term security. The article begins with estimates to show that India is probably urbanising faster than generally thought and together with a severe water development crisis, is in a difficult situation. It also develops the profile that a similar situation exists in the energy sector. In each problématique, the article ends with some governance issues and suggestions.
Alagh Y.K.,Institute of Rural Management
Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2011
India will grow between six and eight percent annually and will become the third or fifth largest economy of the world in this period. A big artifact which is not wholly correct is that urbanization in India is low and not growing fast. It must, however, be noted that the urbanization pattern in India is decentralized. A more productive mindset would be to orient policy to concentric circles of prosperity around diversifying agricultural bases and growth centers. The numerical framework suggested above shows that such possibilities are very real and substantial in India. The OECD on the other hand, uses a simple measure of population density of over 150 people per square kilometer, which, for Brazil would give a figure of 25 per cent. In the next two decades, Indian agriculture will meet the requirements of food security and rapidly diversify itself.
Biswas S.N.,Institute of Rural Management
International Journal of Rural Management | Year: 2015
Cooperatives are important organizational forms helping millions of people, particularly in rural areas, to improve their socio-economic conditions. They are also unique in that they are member-centric business organizations with democratic control, where the shareholders are also users of their services. In this article, first, I discuss the importance of cooperatives as organizational forms, particularly the rural producers’ cooperatives (RPCs); second, analyze the research trends within the organizational behaviour (OB) area in the last one-and-half decade on RPCs; third, chart out directions for future research. The analysis suggests that cooperatives as organizational forms throw up special challenges to the OB researchers, as they are special types of organizations that incorporate business-like features of the investor-owned firms as well as the voluntary nature of nonprofits, thereby increasing the complexity of the context to make it an interesting area of research. For future research, OB researchers will have to go beyond the employee-centric research to include cooperative members as important constituent of the organization, specifically focussing on trust, commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour and leadership behaviour. The article identifies certain roadblocks in getting the attention of the researchers in the OB area and suggests certain ways to overcome these roadblocks. © 2015 Institute of Rural Management
Singh P.K.,Institute of Rural Management |
Hiremath B.N.,Institute of Rural Management
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2010
The paper presents an overview of the existing indicators of development and positions them within the environmental, economic, and social dimensions of sustainable development. It presents empirical evidence of sustainable livelihood security index (SLSI) at the district level in Gujarat. SLSI is a composite index having three component indices, i.e. the ecological security index (ESI), the economic efficiency index (EEI), and the social equity index (SEI). It finds that the SLSI based on its simplicity and flexibility, is one of the most comprehensive yet simple indices for measuring long-term livelihood security in rural areas. For instance, the eastern districts of the state, dominated by scheduled tribes' population have very low EEI and SEI rankings, although they have high ESI ranking. These districts also have very low ranks in gender development index, education index, health index and housing index. Thus, the SLSI not only identifies the general priorities for development but also the nature and types of policies to be pursued in each study unit to enhance livelihood security. The SLSI facilitates consensus among different partisan groups like economists, environmentalists, and egalitarians by balancing their mutual concerns, could provide guidelines for achieving sustainable development. It can function as an educational and a policy tool for promoting a holistic perspective among planners, administrators, and development workers. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh P.K.,Institute of Rural Management |
Nair A.,Institute of Rural Management
Climatic Change | Year: 2014
Existing studies in the context of assessing vulnerability to climate variability and change delineate, rather inadequately, interconnected interactions occurring within the climate-human-environment interaction space. Besides, studies documenting stakeholders’ perceptions regarding climate change induced vulnerabilities are limited in terms of providing indicators for decision-making. This paper aims at constructing a livelihood vulnerability index for climate variability and change capturing interconnected interactions based on peoples’ perceptions while providing indicators for evidence based decision-making. A semi-quantitative fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) approach has been deployed to capture peoples’ perceptions of climate induced perturbations and adaptations. This approach helps quantify stakeholders’ perspectives while capturing interconnected interactions in order to estimate livelihood vulnerability to climate variability and change of poor agro-pastoralists in the Bhilwara, a district in Western India. Combining the FCM approach with a sustainable livelihood framework warrants an understanding of assets sensitive to climate variability and change along with those serving as adaptive capacities. The findings of this study confirm that financial and natural assets are most susceptible to harm while organisational and financial assets provide resilience against climate variability and change. The results suggest that livelihood vulnerability of agro-pastoralists lie in the range of being ‘vulnerable’ to climate variability and change while varying across three seasons summer, winter, and rainfall. © 2014, The Author(s).