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Wasinski B.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Dutkiewicz J.,Institute of Rural Health
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2013

Leptospirosis is a widespread although recently neglected zoonosis recognized worldwide. The disease seems to be underestimated, especially in countries located in the temperate climatic zone. The presented article concerns the main characteristics of leptospirosis and describes formerly known and recently observed environmental, occupational and recreational risk factors significant in the spreading and pathogenesis of the disease. The aspects of epidemiology significant in the temperate climatic zone are emphasized. The majority of cited articles present cases of the disease reported from Europe or North America. Climatic changes (warming) and extreme weather events such as foods are potential risk factors of leptospirosis. Also, some socio-economic phenomena, such as the intensive migration of people resulting in the transfer of the infections acquired in tropical countries, or worsening of economic status in the cities, increase the probability of disease. Apart from the danger connected with rodents, which are the main vectors of leptospires, occurrence of the disease in dogs and cats can generate a higher risk of infection for humans. Infections may also be acquired during various types of agricultural work and during recreational activities, such as swimming. The results of recent investigations show that ticks are also potential vectors of leptospires. The more frequent emergence of leptospirosis in countries located in the temperate climatic zone emphasize the need to verify knowledge related to the risk of its appearance, and to consider this disease during diagnostic processes.

Brzezinski K.,Institute of Rural Health
Wspolczesna Onkologia | Year: 2012

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a toxic neuropathy, a syndrome consisting of highly distressing symptoms of various degrees of severity. It includes numbness of distal extremities, long-term touch, heat, and cold dysaesthesia and, in more severe cases, motor impairment affecting daily functioning. Each form of the syndrome may be accompanied by symptoms of neuropathic stinging, burning, and tingling pain. In the case of most chemotherapeutic agents, the incidence and severity of CIPN are dependent on the cumulative dose of the drug. The syndrome described is caused by damage to the axons and/or cells of the peripheral nervous system. Chemotherapeutic agents have distinct mechanisms of action in both neoplastic tissue and the peripheral nervous system; therefore, CIPN should not be regarded as a homogeneous disease entity. The present article is an attempt to systematize the knowledge about the toxic effects of chemotherapy on the peripheral nervous system.

Szymanska J.,Medical University of Lublin | Sitkowska J.,Institute of Rural Health
Future Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aim: The study aimed to determine qualitative and quantitative contamination of dental unit reservoir water with aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, with regards to health risk to dental staff and patients. Materials & methods: The study material included water samples from 107 unit reservoirs. Conventional microbiological methods were used. The isolated bacteria were divided into three groups according to pathogenic mechanisms. Results: Dental unit water contamination was widespread. The isolated bacteria average concentration was 1.1 × 105 CFU/ml, with Ralstonia pickettii as the prevailing species (49.33%). The total potentially pathogenic bacteria were 54.54% of all the isolated bacteria. Bacteria causing infectious and invasive diseases constituted over one-half of this group, while allergizing and immunotoxic bacteria occurred in smaller quantities. Conclusion: The presence of over 50% potentially pathogenic microorganisms among the isolated bacteria and their very high concentrations call for the daily use of effective methods to reduce dental unit water contamination and health risk. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

Background: According to the data recorded by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, nearly 24% of employees from the EU-25 countries complain of back pain, while 22% report muscular pain. Materials and Methods: The study covered a selected group of 58 male farmers, inhabitants of 7 districts in the Lublin region, engaged in the mixed agricultural production (plant-animal), aged 54.9±10.1. The control group comprised 41 researchers of the University of Life Sciences and the Institute of Rural Health, aged 48.9±9.6. The basic research instrument was a self-designed questionnaire on pain complaints occurring within the motor system: in the lower and upper parts of the spine, and in the region of the neck and shoulders. Results: The results of the survey showed that of the four regions of the motor organs examined, the farmers reported most frequently pain complaints in the lower part of the spine (54 farmers; 93.1% of the total number of respondents), whereas in the control group, pain in this region was reported by 63.4% of researchers (p = 0.0002). Lower back pain most often occurred in farmers during their entire occupational life (64.8%), while in the control group this type of pain had occurred in the last 12 months (57.7%). Farmers described this pain as permanent, radiating to one or both legs, whereas in the control group these were short-lasting episodes (less than 14 days). © Instytut Medycyny Pracy im. prof. J. Nofera w Łodzi.

Epidemiological population studies indicate that the nutrition of women at reproductive age and during pregnancy exerts an effect not only on the term of delivery, development of the foetus and birth weight, but also on the susceptibility of off spring to civilization diseases in adulthood, according to the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Heath and Diseases (DOHaD). The author analyses the results of epidemiological studies conducted in 2011 in a randomly selected representative population of 6,000 Polish adolescents aged 14-24 (of the total of adolescents, a population of females was selected for analysis), and the results of foetal period health monitoring of mother and child (PRAMS) which has been conducted in Poland since 2009 in the population of mothers and their newborn babies staying after delivery in all hospitals in Poland. Analysis of these two population studies indicates that a high percentage of Polish women at reproductive age are dieting. At the same time, confirmation of the fact of becoming pregnant occurs between weeks 5-8 after conception. This shows that until that time, the foetuses of women on the Apple weight loss diet develop conditions of nutritional deficits which, according to the DOHaD hypothesis, may result in epigenetic changes which increase the susceptibility of off spring in adulthood to civilization diseases: cardiovascular disorders, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This hypothesis is confirmed by the high percentages of newborns in Poland born with low birth weight or prematurely born, as well as the fact that the percentage of anemia in pregnant Polish women is twice as high as in other developed countries. Simultaneously, a large number of babies are born with excessive birth weight (macrosomia). The author considers that in the countries of East-Central Europe the phenomenon observed is characteristic at present of the developing countries of the Third World, called the 'double burden of malnutrition'. This situation creates risk of the occurrence of an epidemics of civilization diseases in our part of Europe of a greater intensity than in other developed countries. The author postulates that the educational actions in the area of health promotion in the control of overweight and obesity should be differentiated according to gender and age. The activities to-date in the field of overweight and obesity control in Poland has led to an increase in the number of girls and young women suffering from nutritional disorders as a result of too drastic methods of losing weight. According to the DOHaD hypothesis applied, this may have tragic results for their off spring and for future generations.

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