Institute of Rural Economics

Bamako, Mali

Institute of Rural Economics

Bamako, Mali
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Kennedy G.,Wageningen University | Fanou-Fogny N.,Wageningen University | Fanou-Fogny N.,University Abomey Calavi | Seghieri C.,Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P < 0.05) with MPA. Women in the highest consumption groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.

Pucher A.,University of Hohenheim | Sy O.,Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research | Angarawai I.I.,International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Gondah J.,National Agricultural Research Institute of Niger | And 6 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2015

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] was domesticated in Sahelian West Africa. This highly outcrossing crop is one of the most important staple cereals in the semiarid tropics, adapted to very harsh rain-fed conditions. Agro-morphological characterization of local germplasm is very important to better understand existing diversity, ease targeted genetic broadening of breeding populations, and potentially link this knowledge to genotypic information. The objectives of our study were to (i) characterize West and Central African (WCA) pearl millet accessions based on their agro-morphological traits; (ii) evaluate the possibility to group accessions based on their agro-morphological characteristics; (iii) determine geographic patterns of phenotypic differentiation; and (iv) derive conclusions for pearl millet improvement in WCA. A total of 360 early-tomedium maturity accessions were phenotyped for 12 agro-morphological traits at six environments in WCA. Wide ranges of all observed traits indicated a high diversity of the tested accessions. Principal component analysis revealed very large diversity within individual countries, especially within Mali and Burkina Faso. Some limited grouping of accessions from Niger, Senegal, Cameroon, Morocco, and Mauritania was observed for individual principal component axes. Geographical differentiation and country differences were detected for several traits. The results and data presented in our study reflect WCA pearl millets’ tremendous diversity and adaptability to a wide range of environments and give a sound basis for breeders to select and utilize this germplasm to serve the manifold needs of WCA pearl millet farmers. © Crop Science Society of America

Fanou-Fogny N.,University Abomey Calavi | Fanou-Fogny N.,Wageningen University | van Dam B.,Wageningen University | Koreissi Y.,Wageningen University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior | Year: 2011

Objective: To identify factors influencing intention to consume an indigenous nutritious grain, fonio (Digitaria exilis), among women in Mali. Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model. Setting and Participants: One hundred and eight women (31.5 ± 10.5 years), randomly selected by a 3-stage cluster sampling, Bamako, Mali. Main Outcome Measures: Model constructs scores, intention to consume fonio, and fonio consumption. Analysis: Correlation and multiple regression, Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests for score comparison. Results: Attitudes toward behavior (β = 32, P < .05) was the best predictor of intention to consume fonio, which was significantly correlated with fonio consumption (rho = 78, P < .001). Health value (β = 23, P < .05) was a significant predictor of health behavior identity, which was significantly correlated with attitudes toward behavior (rho = 67, P < 0.001) and perceived barriers (rho = 33, P < .001). The latter formed a significant interaction term between intention and behavior (β = -72, P < .05). Conclusions and Implications: Fonio consumption could be increased in Bamako through stimulation of positive attitudes, changing men's beliefs, influencing family and neighbors' opinions, and improving the processing and the skills of women who prepare fonio. © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education.

de Smedt S.,University of Antwerp | Alaerts K.,University of Antwerp | Kouyate A.M.,Institute of Rural economics | van Damme P.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2011

We analyzed the phenotypic variation of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruits from Mali to define the domestication potential of this species. 269 trees, selected from 10 provenances distributed along a rainfall gradient, were characterized. Five fruits were sampled from each tree. Total individual fruit weight was partitioned into shell, pulp, and seed weight. Ratios were calculated between pulp + seed and total weight, and between pulp and seed weight. For all the measured fruit traits, we detected significant differences between provenances, as well as between trees from the same provenance. Assuming that the measured traits are under genetic control, the latter facts indicate that there are considerable opportunities for tree selection on a local scale. However, candidate plus trees with specific properties, e. g., extremely high pulp or seed weight, were found only in some locations. Mean pulp yield per fruit might be considerably increased by selecting the 5% trees with the highest pulp weight (mean: 45 ± 1 g, best 5%: >100 g). The same might be true for seed production (mean: 71 ± 2 g, best 5%: >150 g). Also the ratio between pulp and seed weight can be an important fruit characteristic for selection: in fruits with a low ratio, relatively more pulp sticks to the seeds when separating the two fruit parts by grinding, and thus more pulp will be lost for further processing. We identified several trees with a high pulp weight combined with a high ratio between pulp and seed weight. It is concluded that there is considerable phenotypic variability in traits of baobab fruit in Mali, offering opportunities for cultivar selection. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Fanou-Fogny N.,University Abomey Calavi | Fanou-Fogny N.,Wageningen University | J. Saronga N.,Wageningen University | Koreissi Y.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The present study investigated the association between weight status and Fe deficiency (ID) among urban Malian women of reproductive age. Height, weight, serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were measured in sixty apparently healthy women aged 15-49 years old in Bamako, Mali. Prevalences of overweight and obese were 19 and 9%, respectively. SF was non-significantly different between overweight (84g/l) and normal-weight women (52g/l). The prevalence of ID (SF<12g/l) was 9% in the overweight group and no true ID (sTfR>83mg/l) cases were recorded in the overweight and obese groups. The prevalence OR of ID (SF<12g/l) in the overweight group was NS (OR=03; P=0363). Conversely, the chronic energy deficiency group was at a significantly higher risk of ID than the normal-weight group, adjusting or not for CRP (OR=77; 95% CI 149, 3996; P=0015). The lack of association between overweight and ID in the present study could be due to the fact that the excess of body fat of the women might not be critical to induce chronic inflammation related to reduced Fe absorption. Future research based on a larger convenience sample should be designed to further investigate associations between overweight, obesity and ID in developing countries. © 2010 The Authors.

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