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Safari J.G.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Safari J.G.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kimambo S.C.,Dodoma Municipal Council | Lwelamira J.E.,Institute of Rural Development Planning
Tanzania Journal of Health Research | Year: 2013

Breast feeding practice especially exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is a major determinant of child growth and development. In Tanzania, most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternative feeding too early in life. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting EBF and the relationship between feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants. This cross-sectional survey, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The study involved lactating women recruited from five randomly selected health facilities. Demographic, clinical, knowledge and practices related to infant feeding as well as infant anthropometric information were collected. Infant nutritional status was assessed based on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight- for- height. There were wide variations in knowledge and practice of breastfeeding among women. Majority (92%) of the respondents gave colostrums to infants although more than 50% did not know its benefits. Eight percent of the respondents discarded colostrums on the account that it is not good for their neonates. Only 23.1% of the respondents thought that infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first six months of infancy. Ninety-eight percent of infants < 1 month of age received breast milk only, compared with 28.5% of infants aged 2-3 months and 22.3% among those who were above 3 months of age. No child in the ≥4 months old was exclusively breastfed. Over 80% of the infants had normal weights, 13% were stunted and 8% wasted. EBF was associated with higher scores for height- for- age Z (P<0.05) and weight- for- height Z (P<0.01). Age, education level and occupation of respondents were important predictors of EBF. Overall, breast feeding practices in the study population were largely suboptimal. As a result, considerable proportions of children had poor health indicators. Thus, correct breastfeeding practices should be supported and promoted to improve the well-being of children. Source

Lwelamira J.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

A study was carried out to evaluate various desired-gain selection indices (Yamada index) in improving performance of two chicken ecotypes of Tanzania viz. Kuchi and Tanzania Medium (Medium). The indices for Kuchi ecotype were geared at improving body weight at 16 (Bwt16) weeks of age while those for Medium ecotype were geared at improving egg production and related traits. These traits included age at first egg (AFE), egg production in the first 90 days after sexual maturity (EN-90) and egg weight (EW). Apart from production traits, antibody responses (Ab) against Newcastle disease virus vaccine was also included in some selection indices in both ecotypes. Furthermore, correlated responses to some egg quality traits namely egg shape index (ESI) and eggshell thickness (STH) were also studied. Results indicated that it would take between 5 to 6 generations of selection in Kuchi to improve Bwt16 either singly or together with Ab from their current levels of 1394 g and 5 (HIlog2) to the desired averages of 1800 g and 6 (HIlog2), respectively. On the other hand results indicated that it would take between 8 to 11 generations of selection in Medium ecotype to improve either AFE and EN-90 or together with EW or Ab or both of them from their current averages of 168 days, 49 eggs, 42 g and 5 (HIlog2) to the desired averages of 154 days, 68 eggs, 50 g, and 6 (HIlog2), respectively. Based on the number of generations required to achieve desired gains and correlated responses, some selection indices were recommended. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

Safari J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Safari J.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Mushi D.E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Mtenga L.A.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Thirty-two castrated male goats of Small East African breed (13.8. kg BW, 12-18. months of age) were used to evaluate the potential of using treated-wheat straw alone or in combination with grass hay as dry season feeds. Animals were allotted into four dietary treatments with eight animals per treatment for 84. days. The dietary treatments were either ad libitum amount of untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), untreated wheat straw with hay (UTSH) or treated wheat straw with hay (TSH). In addition, each animal received 220. g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Dry matter intake from wheat straws was highest (438.1 g/day, P< 0.05) for goats on TS. Daily body weight gain for goats fed TS was nearly two-fold higher than for those fed UTS. Meanwhile, goats fed TSH were more (P< 0.05) efficient in converting feeds to body tissue as they required 9. kg less feed for one kg body weight gain compared to those fed TS. Goats on TS had the highest commercial dressing percentage (DP), which was about 5% higher than the DP of the other dietary groups. Compared to goats fed UTS, those fed TS had 0.70 and 0.32. kg heavier muscles and fat, respectively. Goats on diets including hay (TSH and UTSH) produced carcasses with higher proportion of fat than those without access to hay (TS and UTS). There was muscle-specific response to straw treatment with respect to cooking loss notably for M. gluteobiceps and M. triceps brachii. Chemical treatment of straws improved potentials for crop residues to sustain goats in the dry season with a minimum level of fattening. However, straw treatment had limited effect on the quality of goat meat. Grass hay complemented the effects of chemical treatment in increased intake and growth performance of goats. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ngasala G.,P.A. College | Mgabo M.R.,P.A. College | Mgabo M.R.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Sabuni J.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Tanzania Journal of Health Research | Year: 2016

Background: Oral candidiasis has been a global health challenge especially in immunocompromised patients particularly with HIV infection. Though the incidence and prevalence of opportunistic infections have been reduced due to the use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), oral candidiasis remains the most frequently HIV-associated oral lesion in Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of oral candida infection in HIV positive patients and investigate the relationship between oral manifestations and the level of immunosuppression. Method: This study was carried out at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania. The study included 314 HIV patients with complete clinical results records who were diagnosed with HIV and who were on ARV and attending the hospital for care and treatment. Results: Prevalence of oral candida was 42.0% (132/314). Age group 6-27 years accounted for half of the infections (49/98). A significantly higher prevalence of candida infection (66.7%; 24/36) was obseved among patients with <200 cells/µl than in those with 200-500 cells/µl or >500 cells/µl (Chi-square χ2=14.9, p=0.001). The mean CD4+T-cell counts in HIV patients infected with oral candida was lower (523±35) than patients without oral candida infection (645±31 cells/µl), (ANOVA, p= 0.009). The mean CD4+ T-cell count among HIV patients on ART and those not on ART was not statistically different. Conclusion: The prevalence of oral candida infection was significantly higher in patients with CD4+ cell counts less than 200 cells/µl. © 2016, National Institute for Medical Research. All rights reserved. Source

Safari J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Safari J.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Mushi D.E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and digestibility of 12 most preferred forage species by goats in a semi-arid area of Tanzania. The forages representing grasses, forbs and browses were collected during three seasons (rainy: February-May, mid dry: July-August and late dry: October-November) in 2008. In the same periods, sixteen Small East African does (25 ± 1.2. kg body weight) under free ranging grazing conditions were observed for their grazing behaviour, body weight changes, worm counts and blood metabolites. There was a wide variability in chemical composition between species and seasons. Crude protein (CP) content ranged from 24.4 to 191.0, 45.7 to 241.6 and 97.5 to 228.4. g/kg DM for grasses, forbs and browses, respectively. Unlike forbs and browses, the mean CP of grasses declined below the critical maintenance level for goats during mid and late dry seasons. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) coefficients and predicted metabolizable energy (ME) density were in the range of 0.21-0.61 and 3.5-8.1. MJ/kg DM for grasses, 0.47-0.76 and 6.2-10.2. MJ/kg DM for forbs and 0.23-0.69 and 3.8-10.7. MJ/kg DM for browses, respectively. Mineral concentrations varied among forage species and were all low in phosphorous concentration. Most plants were rich in Ca. Except for forbs and to some extent grass species, browses were deficient in Zn while Cu was only deficient in grasses. Goats showed high flexibility in feeding behaviour with shifts in diets and grazing/non grazing activities in different seasons. In the rainy season, goat diets were largely composed of herbaceous vegetation. As the season advanced from rainy to dry, more browses and forbs were consumed while grasses contributed much less to the diets of goats. The proportion of feeding time increased from rainy (0.57) to late dry (0.68) but that of idling in the same seasons decreased from 0.048 to 0.009. Highest (35. g/d) and lowest (15. g/d) mean weight gains were recorded during mid and late dry seasons, respectively. On the other hand, serum urea concentrations and faecal egg counts decreased from rainy to late dry season. The concentrations of minerals and biochemical indicators determined in the blood showed seasonal cycles but generally within the physiological limits. It is concluded that seasonal changes in the quality of forages elicited shifts in dietary preference and the time spent for grazing by goats and that supplementation of nitrogen and essential minerals is crucial to grass based diets since grasses cannot provide enough of these nutrients especially in the dry months. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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