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Safari J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Safari J.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Mushi D.E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Mtenga L.A.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Thirty-two castrated male goats of Small East African breed (13.8. kg BW, 12-18. months of age) were used to evaluate the potential of using treated-wheat straw alone or in combination with grass hay as dry season feeds. Animals were allotted into four dietary treatments with eight animals per treatment for 84. days. The dietary treatments were either ad libitum amount of untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), untreated wheat straw with hay (UTSH) or treated wheat straw with hay (TSH). In addition, each animal received 220. g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Dry matter intake from wheat straws was highest (438.1 g/day, P< 0.05) for goats on TS. Daily body weight gain for goats fed TS was nearly two-fold higher than for those fed UTS. Meanwhile, goats fed TSH were more (P< 0.05) efficient in converting feeds to body tissue as they required 9. kg less feed for one kg body weight gain compared to those fed TS. Goats on TS had the highest commercial dressing percentage (DP), which was about 5% higher than the DP of the other dietary groups. Compared to goats fed UTS, those fed TS had 0.70 and 0.32. kg heavier muscles and fat, respectively. Goats on diets including hay (TSH and UTSH) produced carcasses with higher proportion of fat than those without access to hay (TS and UTS). There was muscle-specific response to straw treatment with respect to cooking loss notably for M. gluteobiceps and M. triceps brachii. Chemical treatment of straws improved potentials for crop residues to sustain goats in the dry season with a minimum level of fattening. However, straw treatment had limited effect on the quality of goat meat. Grass hay complemented the effects of chemical treatment in increased intake and growth performance of goats. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Hozza W.A.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Safari J.G.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Mushi D.E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2013

A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of goat genotypes and different concentrate levels on growth and slaughter characteristics of Small East African × Norwegian crossbred (SEA × N) and Small East African (SEA) goats. The three concentrate levels were T0 (no access to concentrate), T66 (66 % access to ad libitum concentrate allowance) and T100 (100 % access to ad libitum concentrate allowance). Twenty-four castrated goats of each genotype (18 months old with an average weight of 16.7 ± 0.54 kg) were randomly allotted into T0, T66 and T100 treatments. Daily feed intake and fortnight body weight measurements were recorded for the whole 84-day experimental period, after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/day, which was 183 g/day higher than that of the T66 group. Supplemented goats (T66 and T100) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher daily gain and body condition score, and better feed conversion efficiency and dressing percentage than T0 goats. The SEA goats had higher (P < 0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs. 7.9 kg) and showed better (P < 0.05) dressing percentage than SEA × N animals. Among supplemented goats, the cost of a 1-kg gain under T66 was Tshs 213/= cheaper than T100 (US$1 ≈ Tshs 1,500). It is concluded that goats should be grazed and supplemented with 353 g concentrate/day for satisfactory fattening performance and higher economic return on investment. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

This study was carried out to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for body weights and primary antibody response (Ab) against Newcastle diseases virus (NDV) vaccine for Kuchi chicken ecotype of Tanzania managed extensively. Body weight was evaluated at 8 (Bwt8), 12 (Bwt12), 16 (Bwt16) and 20 (Bwt20) weeks of age, while Ab against NDV vaccine was evaluated at 6 weeks of age (2 weeks post-vaccination). Number of birds per trait varied from 373 to 430. Mean value ± standard error (SE) over both sexes for Bwt8, Bwt12, Bwt12 and Bwt20 were 348 ± 2. 8, 685 ± 5. 3 g, 974 ± 6. 4 g and 1,188 ± 7. 3 g, respectively. Mean Ab value (HI titre in log2) against NDV vaccine was 4. 69 ± 0. 06. Heritability values ± SE for Bwt8, Bwt12, Bwt16, Bwt20 and Ab against NDV vaccine were 0. 30 ± 0. 13, 0. 34 ± 0. 12, 0. 37 ± 0. 11, 0. 39 ± 0. 12 and 0. 22 ± 0. 08, respectively. Genetic (rg) and phenotypic (rp) correlations were positive and high among body weights (i. e. rg = 0. 53 to 0. 74 and rp = 0. 44 to 0. 64), and were negative and low (i. e. around 0. 10 and below) among Ab against NDV vaccine and body weights. Based on these estimates, it was concluded that growth performance for Kuchi chicken under extensive management is still poor. Adequate additive genetic variations exist for body weights and Ab against NDV vaccine under extensive management, thus they can be improved through selection under such environment, and further that both traits (body weight(s) and Ab) can be improved/selected simultaneously without significant reduction in genetic gain (response) for each trait. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Njau F.B.C.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Lwelamira J.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Hyandye C.,Institute of Rural Development Planning
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2013

Assessment of Ruminant livestock production and quality of pastures in communal grazing land ofsemi-arid central Tanzania was carried out in Chololo village in May 2012. The study aimed at estimating communal grazing land area; access ruminant animals kept; identify its pasture species composition and nutritive value. Village communal grazing land was identified through village resource mapping achieved by using Participatory Geographical Information System (PGIS). A reconnaissance survey of the entire grazing site was conducted to get familiarized with the site as well as existing plant communities. Based on the information gathered, various available key species were identified and listed. A thorough botanical composition assessment was conducted in 20 acres of village forest reserve where natural pastures are harvested and conserved for use by livestock during the dry season. Arbitrary transect lines were drawn whereby a total of 20 quadrants of 0.5m2were randomly placed along the arbitrary drawn transect lines across the site after every 20 steps to avoid bias. At each point all available plants falling within the quadrant area, were harvested at ground level, identified and hand-sorted by species or species groups, counted and number of each species or species group recorded on the field records sheet for species botanical composition assessment. Each harvested pasture species was kept in a paper bag for air drying. For nutritive value analysis, the air dried samples were submitted to the Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Animal Science Laboratory for analysis. The forage material were analyzed for DDry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF). They were also analyzed for In vitro Dry Matter (DM) and Organic Matter (OM) Digestibility.Other primary data were collected through household interviews of almost 10% of village household (1,111). Secondary data were collected from the village office. The dominant pasture specie in the forest reserve area was Aristida adscensionis. Results in chemical analysis showed a very low feeding value of the forages in the study site. High values of structural constituents (ADF and NDF), in vitro dry matter digestibility (INVDMD) and chemical composition of the sampled species, indicate that they have a low nutritive value. The study recommend that the community should be enlightened on importance of having grazing plan and to plant adaptable grass and legume species to improve the quality in the communal grazing areas.

Safari J.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Safari J.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Mushi D.E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and digestibility of 12 most preferred forage species by goats in a semi-arid area of Tanzania. The forages representing grasses, forbs and browses were collected during three seasons (rainy: February-May, mid dry: July-August and late dry: October-November) in 2008. In the same periods, sixteen Small East African does (25 ± 1.2. kg body weight) under free ranging grazing conditions were observed for their grazing behaviour, body weight changes, worm counts and blood metabolites. There was a wide variability in chemical composition between species and seasons. Crude protein (CP) content ranged from 24.4 to 191.0, 45.7 to 241.6 and 97.5 to 228.4. g/kg DM for grasses, forbs and browses, respectively. Unlike forbs and browses, the mean CP of grasses declined below the critical maintenance level for goats during mid and late dry seasons. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) coefficients and predicted metabolizable energy (ME) density were in the range of 0.21-0.61 and 3.5-8.1. MJ/kg DM for grasses, 0.47-0.76 and 6.2-10.2. MJ/kg DM for forbs and 0.23-0.69 and 3.8-10.7. MJ/kg DM for browses, respectively. Mineral concentrations varied among forage species and were all low in phosphorous concentration. Most plants were rich in Ca. Except for forbs and to some extent grass species, browses were deficient in Zn while Cu was only deficient in grasses. Goats showed high flexibility in feeding behaviour with shifts in diets and grazing/non grazing activities in different seasons. In the rainy season, goat diets were largely composed of herbaceous vegetation. As the season advanced from rainy to dry, more browses and forbs were consumed while grasses contributed much less to the diets of goats. The proportion of feeding time increased from rainy (0.57) to late dry (0.68) but that of idling in the same seasons decreased from 0.048 to 0.009. Highest (35. g/d) and lowest (15. g/d) mean weight gains were recorded during mid and late dry seasons, respectively. On the other hand, serum urea concentrations and faecal egg counts decreased from rainy to late dry season. The concentrations of minerals and biochemical indicators determined in the blood showed seasonal cycles but generally within the physiological limits. It is concluded that seasonal changes in the quality of forages elicited shifts in dietary preference and the time spent for grazing by goats and that supplementation of nitrogen and essential minerals is crucial to grass based diets since grasses cannot provide enough of these nutrients especially in the dry months. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Lwelamira J.,Institute of rural development planning | Binamungu H.K.,Karagwe District council | Njau F.B.,Institute of rural development planning
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

This study was carried in Kayanga ward, Karagwe district in Tanzania with the aim of evaluating contribution of small scale dairy farming in improving household welfare. The specific objectives of the study were; firstly to compare annual profits from various enterprises including dairy cattle farming by smallholder dairy cattle farmers; secondly, to determine the role of manure from dairy cattle farming in improving crop productivity; and thirdly, to determine the role played by small scale dairy cattle farming in improving household income, possession of durable assets and food security status. The data for this study were collected through a cross- section survey which involved both dairy farming and non- dairy farming households. In-depth interviews with key- informants (i.e extension agents) were also carried out to gather some qualitative information. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 11). Results from this study indicated that small scale dairy farming contributed substantially to household welfare. Average annual profit per household from small scale dairy farming by small scale dairy farmers was on the same range as those from crop production and small scale business (i.e. approximately 1 million Tsh.), meaning that it is equally profitable as with other main enterprises by dairy farmers. As a result of using manure in farms from dairy cattle, average food crop yields among small scale dairy farming households were significantly higher (P< 0.01) than those of non- dairy farming household, and hence more food secure. Average household income, value of durable assets, and food security status (i.e. frequency of consumption of some nutritious food) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in dairy farming households than in non- dairy farming households indicating dairy farming households to be better-off than their counterpart. Due to the observed good outcomes of small scale dairy farming, more promotion of this undertaking in the area has been recommended.

Lwelamira J.,Institute of Rural Development Planning | Kifaro G.C.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

A study was carried out to evaluate various desired-gain selection indices (Yamada index) in improving performance of two chicken ecotypes of Tanzania viz. Kuchi and Tanzania Medium (Medium). The indices for Kuchi ecotype were geared at improving body weight at 16 (Bwt16) weeks of age while those for Medium ecotype were geared at improving egg production and related traits. These traits included age at first egg (AFE), egg production in the first 90 days after sexual maturity (EN-90) and egg weight (EW). Apart from production traits, antibody responses (Ab) against Newcastle disease virus vaccine was also included in some selection indices in both ecotypes. Furthermore, correlated responses to some egg quality traits namely egg shape index (ESI) and eggshell thickness (STH) were also studied. Results indicated that it would take between 5 to 6 generations of selection in Kuchi to improve Bwt16 either singly or together with Ab from their current levels of 1394 g and 5 (HIlog2) to the desired averages of 1800 g and 6 (HIlog2), respectively. On the other hand results indicated that it would take between 8 to 11 generations of selection in Medium ecotype to improve either AFE and EN-90 or together with EW or Ab or both of them from their current averages of 168 days, 49 eggs, 42 g and 5 (HIlog2) to the desired averages of 154 days, 68 eggs, 50 g, and 6 (HIlog2), respectively. Based on the number of generations required to achieve desired gains and correlated responses, some selection indices were recommended. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Shirima E.J.M.,Training and Extension Services | Mtenga L.A.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Kimambo A.E.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Laswai G.H.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

A 4 × 3 factorial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of age at entry to feedlot (AEF) and levels of concentrate feeding (LCF) on body weight gain, feed utilization and killing out characteristics of Tanzanian long-fat-tailed castrate sheep. The AEF points were 9, 12, 15 and 18 months, designated as AEF9, AEF12, AEF15 and AEF18, and the LCF were 50, 75 and 100 % of ad libitum concentrate intake designated as LCF50, LCF75 and LCF100, the last representing ad libitum concentrate intake with 10 % refusal rate. Grass hay as basal diet was offered ad libitum to each sheep. Daily feed intake and weekly live weight were recorded for a period of 84 days. Animals were slaughtered and carcass and non-carcass parameters were recorded. Dry matter intake (DMI) of hay decreased while DMI of concentrate increased (p < 0.01) with increasing LCF. Daily gain in high level (LCF100) was 93.1 g/day, almost twofold higher than that in low level (LCF50) of feeding (39 g/day). Overall dressing percentage ranged from 40.7 to 46.5 % and increased with increasing AEF. The proportion of carcass bone decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing AEF while that of fat increased (p < 0.05) with increasing LCF. Age at entry × level of concentrate feeding interaction was detected for DMI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), slaughter body weight (SBW), muscle/bone ratio and bone (as % cold carcass weight (CCW)), but the effect was not regular. Entering fattening at 18th month seems too late, hence to get in the shortest time the highest output slaughter and carcass weights, fattening should start latest at 15 month. © 2014 The Author(s).

PubMed | Institute of Rural Development Planning
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tanzania journal of health research | Year: 2015

Breast feeding practice especially exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is a major determinant of child growth and development. In Tanzania, most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternative feeding too early in life. The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting EBF and the relationship between feeding practices and the nutritional status of infants. This cross-sectional survey, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. The study involved lactating women recruited from five randomly selected health facilities. Demographic, clinical, knowledge and practices related to infant feeding as well as infant anthropometric information were collected. Infant nutritional status was assessed based on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight- for- height. There were wide variations in knowledge and practice of breastfeeding among women. Majority (92%) of the respondents gave colostrums to infants although more than 50% did not know its benefits. Eight percent of the respondents discarded colostrums on the account that it is not good for their neonates. Only 23.1% of the respondents thought that infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first six months of infancy. Ninety-eight percent of infants < 1 month of age received breast milk only, compared with 28.5% of infants aged 2-3 months and 22.3% among those who were above 3 months of age. No child in the 4 months old was exclusively breastfed. Over 80% of the infants had normal weights, 13% were stunted and 8% wasted. EBF was associated with higher scores for height- for- age Z (P < 0.05) and weight- for- height Z (P < 0.01). Age, education level and occupation of respondents were important predictors of EBF. Overall, breast feeding practices in the study population were largely suboptimal. As a result, considerable proportions of children had poor health indicators. Thus, correct breastfeeding practices should be supported and promoted to improve the well-being of children.

PubMed | Institute of Rural Development Planning and Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences | Year: 2014

The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEAN) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.70.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEAN) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 23 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEAN. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score, total fat depots and carcass fat which increased (p<0.05) with increasing concentrate levels in the diet. Increasing level of concentrate on offer increased meat dry matter with subsequent increase of fat in the meat. Muscle pH of goats fed concentrate declined rapidly and reached below 6 at 6 h post-mortem but temperature remained at 28C. Cooking loss and meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) and thawing loss increased (p<0.05) with ageing period. Similarly, meat tenderness improved (p<0.05) with concentrate supplementation. Shear force of muscles varied from 36 to 66, the high values been associated with Semimembranosus and Gluteobiceps muscles. The present study demonstrates that there are differences in meat quality characteristics of meat from SEA goats and their crosses with Norwegian breeds finished under small scale farming conditions in rural areas. Therefore, concentrate supplementation of goats of both breeds improves meat quality attributes.

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