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Mawatari S.,Institute of Rheological Function of Food | Katafuchi T.,Kyushu University | Miake K.,Marudai Food Co. | Fujino T.,Institute of Rheological Function of Food
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2012

Background: Many disorders with plasmalogen deficiency have been reported. Replenishment or replacement of tissue plasmalogens of these disorders would be beneficial to the patients with these disorders, but effects of dietary plasmalogen on mammals have not been reported. Methods. Plasmalogens were purified from chicken skin. The purified plasmalogens consisted of 96.4% ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn), 2.4% choline plasmalogen (PlsCho) and 0.5% sphingomyelin (SM). A diet containing 0.1% the purified plasmalogens (PlsEtn diet) was given to rats. Relative composition of phospholipids was measured by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that can separate intact plasmalogens and all other phospholipid classes by a single chromatographic run. Results: The PlsEtn diet given to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats for 4 weeks caused decreases of plasma cholesterol and plasma phospholipid as compared to control diet. The other routine laboratory tests of plasma including triacylglycerol, glucose, liver and renal functions, albumin, and body weight were not different. Relative compositions of erythrocyte PlsEtn and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) increased, and that of phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased in PlsEtn diet group. The PlsEtn diet given to normal rats for 9 weeks again caused decrease of plasma cholesterol and phospholipid, and it induced increase of relative composition of PlsEtn of the erythrocyte membrane. The other routine laboratory tests of plasma and body weight were not different. Conclusions: Dietary PlsEtn increases relative composition of PlsEtn of erythrocyte membranes in normal and ZDF rats, and it causes decreases of plasma cholesterol and plasma phospholipids. Dietary PlsEtn for 9 weeks seemingly causes no adverse effect to health of normal rats. © 2012 Mawatari et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Katafuchi T.,Kyushu University | Ifuku M.,Kyushu University | Mawatari S.,Institute of Rheological Function of Food | Noda M.,Kyushu University | And 3 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2012

Neuroinflammation essentially involves an activation of glial cells as the cause/effect of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plasmalogens (Pls) are glycerophospholipids constituting cellular membranes and play significant roles in membrane fluidity and cellular processes like vesicular fusion and signal transduction. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 μg/kg) for 7 days resulted in the morphological changes and increase in number of Iba-1+ microglia showing neuroinflammation in the adult mouse hippocampus. The LPS-induced activation of glial cells was significantly attenuated by i.p. pretreatment with Pls dissolved in corn oil. In addition, systemic injection of LPS induced Aβ1-16 + neurons in the hippocampus were also abolished by application of Pls. Finally, contents of Pls in the hippocampus decreased after LPS injection, and the reduction was suppressed by administration of Pls. These findings suggest an antiamyloidogenic effect of Pls, implicating a possible therapeutic application of Pls against AD. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences. Source


Yunoki K.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Renaguli M.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | Renaguli M.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Kinoshita M.,Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Dietary sphingolipids (SL) inhibit colon carcinogenesis, reduce serum cholesterol, and improve skin barrier function and are considered to be "functional lipids". For comparative determination of the effects of SL with different chemical compositions on lipid metabolism and its related hepatic gene expression, Zucker fatty rats were fed pure sphingomyelin (SM) of animal origin and glucosylceramide (GC) of plant origin. After 45 days, the SM and GC diets led to significant reductions in hepatic lipid and plasma non-HDL cholesterol. Both SM and GC diets decreased plasma insulin levels, whereas only the GC diet increased the plasma adiponectin level. Hepatic gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (Adipor2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (Pdk4). However, expression of stearoyl CoA desaturase (Scd1) was significantly decreased. These results suggest that dietary SL, even of different origins and chemical compositions, may prevent fatty liver and hypercholesterolemia through improvement of adiponectin signaling and consequent increases in insulin sensitivity. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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