Institute of Research in Game Resources

Ciudad Real, Spain

Institute of Research in Game Resources

Ciudad Real, Spain

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Lopez-Antia A.,Institute of Research in Game Resources | Ortiz-Santaliestra M.E.,Institute of Research in Game Resources | Ortiz-Santaliestra M.E.,University of Koblenz-Landau | Camarero P.R.,Institute of Research in Game Resources | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Fipronil is an insecticide commonly used in agriculture, but there are growing concerns over its environmental impacts (e.g., harmful effects on pollinators). Fipronil-treated seed ingestion might threaten granivorous farmland birds, in particular, Gallinaceous birds that are particularly sensitive to this insecticide. We report here on exposure risk and effects in a game bird of high socioeconomic importance, the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). We fed captive birds with untreated maize (controls) or with a mixture of untreated-treated maize (ratio 80:20; exposed birds) during 10 days at the beginning of the breeding period (n = 12 pairs in each group). We first show that exposed partridges did not reject treated seeds but reduced food intake and lost body condition. We further studied the effects of treated seed ingestion on adult survival, oxidative balance, plasma biochemistry, carotenoid-based coloration, cellular immune response, steroid hormone levels, and reproduction. Fipronil exposure altered blood biochemistry and sexual hormone levels and reduced cellular immune response, antioxidant levels, and carotenoid-based coloration. Exposed pairs also had reduced egg fecundation rate and produced eggs with fewer antioxidants and offspring that had reduced cellular immune response. These negative effects on adult partridges, their reproductive performance, and offspring quality highlight that fipronil-treated seed ingestion is a significant threat to wild birds. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Lopez-Antia A.,Institute of Research in Game Resources | Ortiz-Santaliestra M.E.,Institute of Research in Game Resources | Ortiz-Santaliestra M.E.,University of Koblenz-Landau | Blas E.G.-D.,Institute of Research in Game Resources | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2015

Pesticide research traditionally has focused on compounds with high acute toxicity or persistence, but the adverse sublethal effects of pesticides with different properties also may have important consequences on exposed wildlife. The authors studied the effects of thiram, a fungicide used for seed coating with known effects as endocrine disruptor. Red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa; n=15 pairs per treatment group) were fed wheat treated with 0%, 20%, or 100% of the thiram application rate used in autumn (25 d) and late winter (10 d) to mimic cereal sowing periods. The authors studied the effects on reproductive performance, carotenoid-based ornamentation and cellular immune responsiveness of adult partridges, and their relationship with changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and plasma biochemistry. The authors also studied the effect of parental exposure on egg antioxidant content and on the survival, growth, and cellular immune response of offspring. Exposure to thiram-coated seeds delayed egg laying, reduced clutch size, and affected egg size and eggshell thickness. Partridges exposed to the 20% thiram dose exhibited reduced egg fertility and brood size (55% and 28% of controls, respectively). Chick survival was unaffected by parental exposure to treated seeds, but adverse effects on their growth rate and cellular immune response were apparent. These effects on reproduction and immune function may have important demographic consequences on farmland bird populations. © 2015 SETAC.


PubMed | Institute of Research in Game Resources
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology and chemistry | Year: 2016

The ingestion of spent lead (Pb) from ammunition is a known cause of mortality in waterfowl, but little is known about sublethal effects produced by Pb poisoning on birds, especially in wild populations. The authors studied potential sublethal effects associated with Pb exposure in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Ebro delta (northeastern Spain) after a ban on Pb ammunition. They analyzed the relationships between blood Pb levels and oxidative stress, immune response, and carotenoid-based coloration, which are known to be influenced by oxidative stress. Levels of Pb were reduced by half from 6yr to 9yr after the ban. Lipid peroxidation was positively related to Pb levels in females. The -aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was suppressed by Pb exposure and negatively associated with the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Carotenoid levels were positively associated with blood Pb concentration in both sexes, and males with higher Pb levels presented a less intense coloration in legs and beak. Levels of Pb were positively related to hemolytic activity of circulating immune system components and negatively related to lysozyme levels. In summary, Pb exposure was associated in a gender-specific way with increased oxidative stress, consequences on color expression, and impaired constitutive immunity. In females, antioxidants seemed to be allocated mostly in reproduction rather than in self-maintenance, whereas males seemed to better maintain oxidative balance to the detriment of coloration. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1516-1525. 2015 SETAC.


PubMed | Institute of Research in Game Resources and Experimental Station of Arid Zones
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology and chemistry | Year: 2015

Pesticide research traditionally has focused on compounds with high acute toxicity or persistence, but the adverse sublethal effects of pesticides with different properties also may have important consequences on exposed wildlife. The authors studied the effects of thiram, a fungicide used for seed coating with known effects as endocrine disruptor. Red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa; n=15 pairs per treatment group) were fed wheat treated with 0%, 20%, or 100% of the thiram application rate used in autumn (25 d) and late winter (10 d) to mimic cereal sowing periods. The authors studied the effects on reproductive performance, carotenoid-based ornamentation and cellular immune responsiveness of adult partridges, and their relationship with changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and plasma biochemistry. The authors also studied the effect of parental exposure on egg antioxidant content and on the survival, growth, and cellular immune response of offspring. Exposure to thiram-coated seeds delayed egg laying, reduced clutch size, and affected egg size and eggshell thickness. Partridges exposed to the 20% thiram dose exhibited reduced egg fertility and brood size (55% and 28% of controls, respectively). Chick survival was unaffected by parental exposure to treated seeds, but adverse effects on their growth rate and cellular immune response were apparent. These effects on reproduction and immune function may have important demographic consequences on farmland bird populations.

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