Institute of Research for Development IRD

Cotonou, Benin

Institute of Research for Development IRD

Cotonou, Benin
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Pham T.T.,Center for International Forestry Research | Castella J.-C.,Institute of Research for Development IRD | Lestrelin G.,Institute of Research for Development IRD | Mertz O.,Copenhagen University | And 4 more authors.
Forests | Year: 2015

Free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) is a means of ensuring that people's rights are respected when reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing forest carbon stocks (REDD+) projects are established in developing countries. This paper examines how FPIC has been applied in three projects in Vietnam and highlights two key lessons learnt. First, as human rights and democracy are seen as politically sensitive issues in Vietnam, FPIC is likely to be more accepted by the government if it is built upon the national legal framework on citizen rights. Applying FPIC in this context can ensure that both government and citizen's interests are achieved within the permitted political space. Second, FPIC activities should be seen as a learning process and designed based on local needs and preferences, with accountability of facilitators, two-way and multiple communication strategies, flexibility, and collective action in mind. © 2015 by the authors.


van Vliet N.,Copenhagen University | Mertz O.,Copenhagen University | Heinimann A.,University of Bern | Langanke T.,Copenhagen University | And 19 more authors.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2012

This meta-analysis of land-cover transformations of the past 10-15 years in tropical forest-agriculture frontiers world-wide shows that swidden agriculture decreases in landscapes with access to local, national and international markets that encourage cattle production and cash cropping, including biofuels. Conservation policies and practices also accelerate changes in swidden by restricting forest clearing and encouraging commercial agriculture. However, swidden remains important in many frontier areas where farmers have unequal or insecure access to investment and market opportunities, or where multi-functionality of land uses has been preserved as a strategy to adapt to current ecological, economic and political circumstances. In some areas swidden remains important simply because intensification is not a viable choice, for example when population densities and/or food market demands are low. The transformation of swidden landscapes into more intensive land uses has generally increased household incomes, but has also led to negative effects on the social and human capital of local communities to varying degrees. From an environmental perspective, the transition from swidden to other land uses often contributes to permanent deforestation, loss of biodiversity, increased weed pressure, declines in soil fertility, and accelerated soil erosion. Our prognosis is that, despite the global trend towards land use intensification, in many areas swidden will remain part of rural landscapes as the safety component of diversified systems, particularly in response to risks and uncertainties associated with more intensive land use systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya S.,Khon Kaen University | Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya S.,University Blaise Pascal | Do F.C.,Khon Kaen University | Pannengpetch K.,Khon Kaen University | And 4 more authors.
Tree Physiology | Year: 2010

The transient thermal dissipation (TTD) method developed by Do and Rocheteau (2002b) is a close evolution of the original constant thermal dissipation (CTD) method of Granier (1985). The TTD method has the advantage of limiting the influence of passive natural temperature gradients and of yielding more stable zero-flux references at night. By analogy with the CTD method, the transient method was first calibrated on synthetic porous material (sawdust) on the assumption that the relationship was independent of the woody species. Here, our concern was to test the latter hypothesis with a 10-min heating time in three tropical species: Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg., Mangifera indica L. and Citrus maxima Merr. A complementary objective was to compare the field estimates of daily transpiration for mature rubber trees with estimates based on a simplified soil water balance in the dry season. The calibration experiments were carried out in the laboratory on cut stems using an HPFM device and gravimetric control of water flow up to 5 L dm?2 h?1. Nineteen response curves were assessed on fully conductive xylem, combining 11 cut stems and two probes. The field evaluation comprised five periods from November 2007 to February 2008. Estimates of daily transpiration from the measurement of sap flow were based on the 41 sensors set up on 11 trees. Soil water depletion was monitored by neutron probe and 12 access tubes to a depth of 1.8 m. The calibrations confirmed that the response of the transient thermal index to flow density was independent of the woody species that were tested. The best fit was a simple linear response (R2 = 0.88, n = 276 and P < 0.0001). The previous calibration performed by Do and Rocheteau (2002b) on sawdust fell within the variability of the multi-species calibration; however, there were substantial differences with the average curve at extreme flow rates. Field comparison with soil water depletion in the dry season validated to a reasonable extent the absolute estimates of transpiration acquired with the 10-min TTD method. In conclusion, evidence for the independence of calibration from woody species and the simple linear response of the thermal index strengthen the interest of the TTD method with 10-min heating. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Pinault M.,Pareto ecoconsult Reunion Island agency | Pinault M.,CNRS Insular Research Center and Environment Observatory | Loiseau N.,Institute of Research for Development IRD | Chabanet P.,CNRS Insular Research Center and Environment Observatory | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance intensity. Regarding the broader effects, this study helps better understand how ecosystems can resist or recover from acute disturbances and the process of ecological succession that leads to the establishment of fish communities in newly submerged habitats. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


Grimaldi M.,IRD Montpellier | Oszwald J.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany | Doledec S.,CNRS Ecology of Natural and Anthropized Hydrosystems Laboratory | Hurtado M.P.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture | And 25 more authors.
Landscape Ecology | Year: 2014

Landscape dynamics result from forestry and farming practices, both of which are expected to have diverse impacts on ecosystem services (ES). In this study, we investigated this general statement for regulating and supporting services via an assessment of ecosystem functions: climate regulation via carbon sequestration in soil and plant biomass, water cycle and soil erosion regulation via water infiltration in soil, and support for primary production via soil chemical quality and water storage. We tested the hypothesis that patterns of land-cover composition and structure significantly alter ES metrics at two different scales. We surveyed 54 farms in two Amazonian regions of Brazil and Colombia and assessed land-cover composition and structure from remote sensing data (farm scale) from 1990 to 2007. Simple and well-established methods were used to characterize soil and vegetation from five points in each farm (plot scale). Most ES metrics were significantly correlated with land-use (plot scale) and land-cover (farm scale) classifications; however, spatial variability in inherent soil properties, alone or in interaction with land-use or land-cover changes, contributed greatly to variability in ES metrics. Carbon stock in above-ground plant biomass and water infiltration rate decreased from forest to pasture land covers, whereas soil chemical quality and plant-available water storage capacity increased. Land-cover classifications based on structure metrics explained significantly less ES metric variation than those based on composition metrics. Land-cover composition dynamics explained 45 % (P < 0.001) of ES metric variance, 15 % by itself and 30 % in interaction with inherent soil properties. This study describes how ES evolve with landscape changes, specifying the contribution of spatial variability in the physical environment and highlighting trade-offs and synergies among ES. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Badu K.,Ghana Technology University College | Badu K.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Siangla J.,U.S. Army | Larbi J.,Ghana Technology University College | And 7 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Background: The existing metrics of malaria transmission are limited in sensitivity under low transmission intensity. Robust surveillance systems are needed as interventions to monitor reduced transmission and prevention of rapid reintroduction. Serological tools based on antibody responses to parasite and vector antigens are potential tools for transmission measurements. The current study sought to evaluate antibody responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6- P1), as a biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, in different transmission settings and seasons. The comparison between anti-MSP-1§ssub§19§esub§ IgG immune responders and non-responders allowed exploring the robustness of the gSG6-P1 peptide as a surveillance tool in an area of decreasing malaria transmission. Methods. Total IgG levels to gSG6-P1 were measured in an age-stratified cohort (< 5, 5-14 and ≥ 15 years) in a total of 1,366 participants from three localities in western Kenya [Kisii (hypoendemic), Kakamega (mesoendemic), and Kombewa (hyperendemic)] including 607 sera that were additionally tested for MSP-1§ssub§19§esub§ specific responses during a low and a high malaria transmission seasons. Antibody prevalence and levels were compared between localities with different transmission intensities. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between gSG6-P1 and MSP-1§ssub§19§esub§ seroprevalence and parasite prevalence. Result: Seroprevalence of gSG6-P1 in the uphill population was 36% while it was 50% valley bottom (X2 = 13.2, df = 1, p < 0.001). Median gSG6-P1 antibody levels in the Valley bottom were twice as high as that observed in the uphill population [4.50 vs. 2.05, p < 0.001] and showed seasonal variation. The odds of gSG6-P1 seropositives having MSP-119 antibodies were almost three times higher than the odds of seronegatives (OR = 2.87, 95% CI [1.977, 4.176]). The observed parasite prevalence for Kisii, Kakamega and Kombewa were 4%, 19.7% and 44.6% whilst the equivalent gSG6-P1 seroprevalence were 28%, 34% and 54%, respectively. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of IgG to gSG6-P1 was sensitive and robust in distinguishing between hypo, meso and hyper transmission settings and seasonal fluctuations. © 2012 Badu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Institute of Research for Development IRD
Type: Review | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2017

In most tropical areas, pregnant women are at increased risk of malaria, as a consequence of the massive sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the placenta. The placenta plays a key role in embryonic and fetal development as well as in maternal-fetal exchanges, and pregnancy-associated malaria may alter selected placenta functions that lead to stillbirth and low birth weight. Although there are several tools (blood smear examination, RDT, PCR) to diagnose malaria infection during pregnancy, there is currently no test to assess placenta dysfunction in the framework of pregnancy-associated malaria. Pregnancy-associated malaria shares many features with preeclampsia, an extensively studied disease. Various biomarkers associated with placental dysfunction have been identified as associated with preeclampsia. Several of these are inflammatory markers that lack of specificity. A few seem more specific of placenta dysfunction, including s-endoglin and sFlt1, increased in the peripheral blood during preeclampsia. The predictive value of these biomarkers should be studied in the context of pregnancy-associated malaria to evaluate their usefulness in identifying placental dysfunction during malaria. These biomarkers should be considered to improve the diagnosis of placental dysfunction during malaria and pregnant women monitoring.

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