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Azevedo R.,Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto IPO Porto | Azevedo R.,University of Porto | Ferreira J.A.,Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto IPO Porto | Ferreira J.A.,University of Aveiro | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2015

Abstract Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract, presents the highest recurrence rate among solid tumors and is the second leading cause of death in genitourinary cancers. Despite recent advances in understanding of pathophysiology of the disease, the management of bladder cancer patients remains a clinically challenging problem. Particularly, bladder tumors invading the muscularis propria and disseminated disease are often not responsive to currently available therapeutic approaches, which include surgery and conventional chemotherapy. Antibody-based therapeutic strategies have become an established treatment option for over a decade in several types of cancer. However, bladder cancer has remained mostly an "orphan disease" regarding the introduction of these novel therapeutics, which has been translated in few improvements in patients overall survival. In order to shift this paradigm, several clinical studies involving antibody-based therapeutic strategies targeting the most prominent bladder cancer-related biomolecular pathways and immunological mediators are ongoing. This systematic review explores antibody-based therapeutics for bladder cancer undergoing clinical trial and discusses the future perspectives in this field, envisaging the development of more effective guided therapeutics. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Faustino-Rocha A.I.,Royal University | Faustino-Rocha A.I.,University of Aveiro | Gama A.,Royal University | Oliveira P.A.,Royal University | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2016

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Several studies have suggested that exercise training may decrease the risk of breast cancer development. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term exercise training on mammary tumorigenesis in an animal model of mammary cancer. Fifty female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: MNU sedentary, MNU exercised, control sedentary and control exercised. Animals from MNU groups received an intraperitoneal administration of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals were exercised on a treadmill during 35 weeks. When animals were killed, blood samples were collected to determine the hematocrit and to perform the biochemical analysis. Mammary tumors were collected and histologically evaluated; the expression of ERs α and β was evaluated in tumor sections by immunohistochemistry. All survived animals from both MNU groups developed mammary tumors. The number of mammary tumors (p > 0.05) and lesions (p = 0.056) was lower in MNU exercised than in MNU sedentary animals. MNU exercised animals showed lower number of malignant lesions than MNU sedentary animals (p = 0.020). C-reactive protein serum concentration was lower in exercised animals; however, the levels of 17-β estradiol were higher in exercised animals. Tumors from exercised animals exhibited higher expression of ER α than tumors from sedentary animals (p < 0.05). This study analyzes the impact of the longest exercise training protocol on mammary tumorigenesis ever performed. We concluded that the lifelong endurance training has beneficial effects on mammary tumorigenesis in female rats (reduced the inflammation, the number of mammary tumors and lesions, and histological grade of malignancy). Additionally, the mammary tumors from MNU exercised group exhibited higher immunoexpression of ER α that is an indicator of well-differentiated tumors and better response to hormone therapy. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

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