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PubMed | University of Turku, University of Bristol, University Miguel Hernández, University Institute of Health Sciences and 52 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human molecular genetics | Year: 2016

A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index.


PubMed | Northwick Park Hospital, King's College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Queens Medical Center and Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Obstetric medicine | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine whether women induced for obstetric cholestasis (OC) have increased rates of operative delivery compared with women without OC who are induced. This retrospective case-control study included 64 women with OC (singleton pregnancies), who had labour induced compared with two control groups (matched for parity and gestational week at delivery). The majority of women were induced at 37 weeks. We found no significant increase in the rate of operative or assisted delivery in OC cases compared with either control group. Women with OC who are induced between 36 and 40 weeks gestation do not have increased rates of assisted or operative delivery compared with induced controls.


PubMed | Rovira i Virgili University, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Harvard University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular cancer research : MCR | Year: 2017

Metabolite profiling has significantly contributed to a deeper understanding of the biochemical metabolic networks and pathways in cancer cells. Metabolomics-based biomarker discovery would greatly benefit from the ability to interrogate retrospective annotated clinical specimens archived as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was performed in matched frozen and FFPE human prostate cancers as well as isogenic prostate cancer cell lines. A total of 352 and 460 metabolites were profiled in human tissues and cell lines, respectively. Classes and physical-chemical characteristics of the metabolites preserved in FFPE material were characterized and related to their preservation or loss following fixation and embedding. Metabolite classes were differentially preserved in archival FFPE tissues, regardless of the age of the block, compared to matched frozen specimen, ranging from maximal preservation of fatty acids (78%) to loss of the majority of peptides and steroids. Generally, FFPE samples showed a decrease of metabolites with functional groups, such as carboxamide. As an adjunct technique, metabolic profiles were also obtained in situ from FFPE tissue sections where metabolites were extracted in a manner that preserves tissue architecture. Despite the fact that selected metabolites were not retained after processing, global metabolic profiles obtained from FFPE can be used to predict biological states and study biological pathways. These results pave the way for metabolomics-based biomarker discovery/validation utilizing retrospective and clinically annotated FFPE collections.Metabolic profiles can be performed in archival tissue and may be used to complement other profiling methods such as gene expression for biomarker discovery or pathway analysis in the assessment of biologic states.


Lei K.,Chelsea and Westminster Hospital | Lei K.,Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology | Chen L.,Chelsea and Westminster Hospital | Chen L.,Southwest University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Progesterone is widely used to prolong gestation in women at risk of preterm labour (PTL), and acts at least in part via the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine-induced prostaglandin synthesis. This study investigates the mechanisms responsible for this inhibition in human myometrial cells. We used reporter constructs to demonstrate that interleukin 1beta (IL-1β) inhibits progesterone driven PRE activation via p65 activation and that IL-1β reduced progesterone driven gene expression (FKBP5). Conversely, we found that the activity of a p65-driven NFκB reporter construct was reduced by overexpression of progesterone receptor B (PRB) alone and that this was enhanced by the addition of MPA and that both MPA and progesterone suppressed IL-1β-driven cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. We found that over-expressed Halo-tagged PRB, but not PRA, bound to p65 and that in IL-1β-treated cells, with no overexpression of either PR or p65, activated p65 bound to PR. However, we found that the ability of MPA to repress IL-1β-driven COX-2 expression was not enhanced by overexpression of either PRB or PRA and that although the combined PR and GR antagonist Ru486 blocked the effects of progesterone and MPA, the specific PR antagonist, Org31710, did not, suggesting that progesterone and MPA act via GR and not PR. Knockdown using siRNA confirmed that both MPA and progesterone acted via GR and not PR or AR to repress IL-1β-driven COX-2 expression. We conclude that progesterone acts via GR to repress IL-1β-driven COX-2 activation and that although the interaction between p65 and PRB may be involved in the repression of progesterone driven gene expression it does not seem to be responsible for progesterone repression of IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. © 2012 Lei et al.


Jayasena C.N.,Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology | Franks S.,Imperial College London
Nature Reviews Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The syndrome is typified by its heterogeneous presentation, which includes hirsutism (a function of hypersecretion of ovarian androgens), menstrual irregularity and infertility (that is due to infrequent or absent ovulation). Furthermore, PCOS predisposes patients to metabolic dysfunction and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aetiology of the syndrome has a major genetic component. Obesity exacerbates the insulin resistance that is a feature of PCOS in many women and amplifies the clinical and biochemical abnormalities. In clinical practice, the choice of investigations to be done depends mainly on the presenting symptoms. The approach to management is likewise dependent on the presenting complaint. Symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne and alopecia) require cosmetic measures, suppression of ovarian androgen function and anti-androgen therapy, alone or in combination. Ovulation rate is improved by diet and lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals but induction of ovulation by, in the first instance, anti-estrogens is usually required. Monitoring of glucose is important in overweight women and/or those with a family history of T2DM. Metformin is indicated for women with impaired glucose tolerance but whether this drug is otherwise useful in women with PCOS remains debatable. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Engineer N.,Imperial College London | Kumar S.,Imperial College London | Kumar S.,Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica | Year: 2010

Objective. To investigate the impact of severe preterm intrauterine growth restriction on perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. Tertiary referral fetal medicine unit in London. Population. A total of 60 pregnancies affected by early onset severe intrauterine growth restriction with fetal abdominal circumference below the third centile and abnormal arterial or venous Dopplers between October 2003 and October 2007, and control cohort of 77 appropriate-for-gestational age preterm neonates. Methods. Cases were identified from the departmental databases. The neonatal outcomes in 44 growth restricted survivors were compared with 77 gestation matched appropriate-for-gestational age preterm neonates. Main outcome measures. Neonatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. Results. Of the 60 pregnancies affected by severe intrauterine growth restriction, seven were terminated, nine resulted in stillbirth and 44 resulted in live births. The growth restricted neonates had increased odds of developing respiratory distress compromise (odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16.2) and thrombocytopenia (OR 9.4, 95%CI 2.930.8) in comparison to average-for-gestational age cohorts. We also noted an increased risk of neonatal sepsis (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.16.0) and necrotising enterocolitis (OR 9.7, 95%CI 1.186.0). Sepsis was the major contributing factor towards neonatal mortality in the growth restricted cohorts. Conclusion. Despite intensive fetal surveillance and tertiary level neonatal care, the survival for growth restricted fetuses before 28 weeks gestation remains poor with neonatal outcome predominantly affected by respiratory morbidity, sepsis and metabolic compromise. © 2010 Informa Healthcare.


Milona A.,Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) | Year: 2010

Pregnancy alters bile acid homeostasis and can unmask cholestatic disease in genetically predisposed but otherwise asymptomatic individuals. In this report, we show that normal pregnant mice have raised hepatic bile acid levels in the presence of procholestatic gene expression. The nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates the transcription of the majority of these genes, and we show that both ablation and activation of Fxr prevent the accumulation of hepatic bile acids during pregnancy. These observations suggest that the function of Fxr may be perturbed during gestation. In subsequent in vitro experiments, serum from pregnant mice and humans was found to repress expression of the Fxr target gene, small heterodimer partner (Shp), in liver-derived Fao cells. Estradiol or estradiol metabolites may contribute to this effect because coincubation with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist fulvestrant (ICI 182780) abolished the repressive effects on Shp expression. Finally, we report that ERα interacts with FXR in an estradiol-dependent manner and represses its function in vitro. CONCLUSION: Ligand-activated ERα may inhibit FXR function during pregnancy and result in procholestatic gene expression and raised hepatic bile acid levels. We propose that this could cause intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in genetically predisposed individuals.


Kandola M.K.,Imperial College London | Sykes L.,Imperial College London | Lee Y.S.,Imperial College London | Johnson M.R.,Imperial College London | And 2 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGE2) plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contractions. Classically, PGE2 stimulates contractions via EP1 and EP3 receptors, whereas EP2 and EP4 maintain quiescence. Labor involves a change from myometrial quiescence to contractions with a shift from anti- to proinflammatory pathways. EP2, a Gαs-coupled receptor, is known to mediate its actions via cAMP signaling. However, we have recently shown that EP2 also activates the proinflammatory PG G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2). Here, we identify the mechanism underlying the ability of EP2 to maintain uterine quiescence and activate a proinflammatory/prolabor response in term-pregnant human myometrium. Human myometrial biopsies for in vivo and in vitro studies were taken at cesarean section at term, before or after the onset of labor. Activation of EP2 increased intracellular levels ofcAMPand reduced contractility. Contrastingly, EP2 stimulation increased levels of PGHS-2, membrane-associated PGE synthase-1, and PGE2. This was entirely dependent on EP2-mediated activation of calcium signaling. Both calcium signaling and up-regulation of PGHS-2 were insensitive to the Gαi inhibitor pertussis toxin but inhibited by small interfering RNA knockdown of Gαq/11. There were no differences in EP2mRNAor protein levels between upper or lower segment myometrium or between pre- and postlabor myometrium. However, in myocytes taken after the onset of labor, cAMP signaling was markedly attenuated, whereas activation of calcium and PGHS-2 was preserved. Overall, the dual coupling of EP2 to Gαs-cAMP and Gαq/11-calcium pathways underlies its ability to mediate contrasting functions in term pregnancy and the "switching" to a prolabor receptor. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society.


Lintner B.,St Stephen Hospital | Saso S.,Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology | Tarnai L.,St Stephen Hospital | Novak Z.,St Stephen Hospital | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer | Year: 2013

Objective: Invasive cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers, with 500,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Fertility preservation has become an important component of the overall quality of life of many cancer survivors. Expert opinion has suggested that fertility-sparing surgery should be limited to those patients diagnosed with cervical cancer less than 2 cm in diameter. Our objective was to report our abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) experience in the opposite group of patientsVthose with a cervical cancer more than 2 cm in diameter. Methods: Between 1999 and 2006, a total of 45 patients with cervical carcinoma at International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB1-IB2 measuring more than 2 cm in diameter underwent fertility-sparing ART and pelvic lymphadenectomy at the 3 institutions where the authors are based (Budapest, Hungary; London, United Kingdom; New York, United States). They were followed up for more than 5 years. Results: For 69% of patients (n = 31), completed ART was considered to have been curative, and no adjuvant treatment was advised. Of those patients, 93.5% (n = 29) were alive at the time of follow-up. Thirty-one percent of patients (n = 14) underwent immediate completion of radical hysterectomy. Three of 8 patients who wished to fall pregnant delivered healthy neonates. Conclusions: The 5-year survival rate (93.5%) for this case series is equal (or better) to rates reported in the literature for patient treated with radical hysterectomy. Our survival data seem to support the hypothesis that ART is a safe treatment option for patients with invasive cervical cancer lesions of more than 2 cm. © 2013 by IGCS and ESGO.


Rousset C.I.,Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology | Baburamani A.A.,Gothenburg University | Thornton C.,Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology | Hagberg H.,Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology | Hagberg H.,Gothenburg University
Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine | Year: 2012

Secondary brain injury after hypoxia-ischemia is associated with delayed loss of high energy phosphates implicating bioenergetic mitochondrial failure at least partly related to deregulation of the energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, the toxic intracellular environment (accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrosative species and intracellular calcium) during post-ischemic reperfusion triggers Bax-dependent mitochondrial permeabilization (MP) leading to activation of caspase-dependent and apoptosis-inducing factor dependent cell death. We still do not understand how MP is induced but some data suggest that mitochondrial fusion/fission as well as migration play a critical role. Mitochondrial dynamics also seem critical for brain development as genetic deficiency of proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion and fission results in malformations including microcephaly, abnormal brain development and dysmyelination. In this brief review, we update the critical role of mitochondria in brain development and the decision of cell fate after hypoxia-ischemia in the immature CNS. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

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