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Chicanne G.,University Paul Sabatier | Severin S.,University Paul Sabatier | Boscheron C.,Joseph Fourier University | Boscheron C.,Institute Of Recherches En Technologies Et Science Pour Le Vivant | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical Journal

PtdIns3P is recognized as an important player in the control of the endocytotic pathway and in autophagy. Recent data also suggest that PtdIns3P contributes to molecular mechanisms taking place at the plasma membrane and at the midbody during cytokinesis. This lipid is present in low amounts in mammalian cells and remains difficult to quantify either by traditional techniques based on radiolabelling followed by HPLC to separate the different phosphatidylinositol monophosphates, or by high-sensitive liquid chromatography coupled to MS,which is still under development. In the present study,we describe amass assay to quantify this lipid from various biological samples using the recombinant PtdIns3P 5-kinase, PIKfyve. Using this assay, we show an increase in the mass level of PtdIns3P in mouse and human platelets following stimulation, loss of this lipid in Vps34-deficient yeasts and its relative enrichment in early endosomes isolated from BHK cells. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Adam V.,Catholic University of Leuven | Adam V.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology | Adam V.,Institute Of Recherches En Technologies Et Science Pour Le Vivant | Moeyaert B.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 9 more authors.
Chemistry and Biology

Advanced fluorescence imaging, including subdiffraction microscopy, relies on fluorophores with controllable emission properties. Chief among these fluorophores are the photoactivatable fluorescent proteins capable of reversible on/off photoswitching or irreversible green-to-red photoconversion. IrisFP was recently reported as the first fluorescent protein combining these two types of phototransformations. The introduction of this protein resulted in new applications such as super-resolution pulse-chase imaging. However, the spectroscopic properties of IrisFP are far from being optimal and its tetrameric organization complicates its use as a fusion tag. Here, we demonstrate how four-state optical highlighting can be rationally introduced into photoconvertible fluorescent proteins and develop and characterize a new set of such enhanced optical highlighters derived from mEosFP and Dendra2. We present in particular NijiFP, a promising new fluorescent protein with photoconvertible and biphotochromic properties that make it ideal for advanced fluorescence-based imaging applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Source

Fron E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Der Auweraer M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Moeyaert B.,Catholic University of Leuven | Michiels J.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B

Green-to-red photoconversion is a reaction that occurs in a limited number of fluorescent proteins and that is currently mechanistically debated. In this contribution, we report on our investigation of the photoconvertible fluorescent protein Dendra2 by employing a combination of pump-probe, up-conversion and single photon timing spectroscopic techniques. Our findings indicate that upon excitation of the neutral green state an excited state proton transfer proceeds with a time constant of 3.4 ps between the neutral green and the anionic green states. In concentrated solution we detected resonance energy transfer (25 ps time constant) between green and red monomers. The time-resolved emission spectra suggest also the formation of a super-red species, first observed for DsRed (a red fluorescent protein from the corallimorph species Discosoma) and consistent with peculiar structural details present in both proteins. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Jouhet J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Jouhet J.,University Grenoble alpes | Jouhet J.,Institute Of Recherches En Technologies Et Science Pour Le Vivant | Jouhet J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Frontiers in Plant Science

Domains are present in every natural membrane. They are characterized by a distinctive protein and/or lipid composition. Their size is highly variable from the nano- to the micrometer scale. The domains confer specific properties to the membrane leading to original structure and function. The determinants leading to domain organization are therefore important but remain obscure. This review presents how the ability of lipids to organize into hexagonal II or lamellar phases can promote particular local structures within membranes. Since biological membranes are composed of a mixture of lipids, each with distinctive biophysical properties, lateral and transversal sorting of lipids can promote creation of domains inside the membrane through local modulation of the lipid phase. Lipid biophysical properties have been characterized for long based on in vitro analyses using non-natural lipid molecules; their re-examinations using natural lipids might open interesting perspectives on membrane architecture occurring in vivo in various cellular and physiological contexts. Source

Connorton J.M.,University of Manchester | Connorton J.M.,Institute Of Recherches En Technologies Et Science Pour Le Vivant | Webster R.E.,University of Manchester | Cheng N.,Baylor College of Medicine | Pittman J.K.,University of Manchester

Cation/H+ exchangers encoded by CAX genes play an important role in the vacuolar accumulation of metals including Ca2+ and Mn2+. Arabidopsis thaliana CAX1 and CAX3 have been previously shown to differ phylogenetically from CAX2 but the physiological roles of these different transporters are still unclear. To examine the functions and the potential of redundancy between these three cation transporters, cax1/cax2 and cax2/cax3 double knockout mutants were generated and compared with wild type and cax single knockouts. These double mutants had equivalent metal stress responses to single cax mutants. Both cax1 and cax1/cax2 had increased tolerance to Mg stress, while cax2 and cax2/cax3 both had increased sensitivity to Mn stress. The cax1/cax2 and cax2/cax3 mutants did not exhibit the deleterious developmental phenotypes previously seen with the cax1/cax3 mutant. However, these new double mutants did show alterations in seed germination, specifically a delay in germination time. These alterations correlated with changes in nutrient content within the seeds of the mutants, particularly the cax1/cax2 mutant which had significantly higher seed content of Ca and Mn. This study indicates that the presence of these Arabidopsis CAX transporters is important for normal germination and infers a role for CAX proteins in metal homeostasis within the seed. © 2012 Connorton et al. Source

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