Institute Of Recherche Servier

Croissy-sur-Seine, France

Institute Of Recherche Servier

Croissy-sur-Seine, France
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De Deurwaerdere P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Di Giovanni G.,University of Cardiff | Di Giovanni G.,University of Malta | Millan M.J.,Institute Of Recherche Servier
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2017

Though a multi-facetted disorder, Parkinson's disease is prototypically characterized by neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to a severe disruption of motor function. Accordingly, L-DOPA, the metabolic precursor of dopamine (DA), is well-established as a treatment for the motor deficits of Parkinson's disease despite long-term complications such as dyskinesia and psychiatric side-effects. Paradoxically, however, despite the traditional assumption that L-DOPA is transformed in residual striatal dopaminergic neurons into DA, the mechanism of action of L-DOPA is neither simple nor entirely clear. Herein, focussing on its influence upon extracellular DA and other neuromodulators in intact animals and experimental models of Parkinson's disease, we highlight effects other than striatal generation of DA in the functional profile of L-DOPA. While not excluding a minor role for glial cells, L-DOPA is principally transformed into DA in neurons yet, interestingly, with a more important role for serotonergic than dopaminergic projections. Moreover, in addition to the striatum, L-DOPA evokes marked increases in extracellular DA in frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, the subthalamic nucleus and additional extra-striatal regions. In considering its functional profile, it is also important to bear in mind the marked (probably indirect) influence of L-DOPA upon cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the basal ganglia and/or cortex, while anomalous serotonergic transmission is incriminated in the emergence of L-DOPA elicited dyskinesia and psychosis. Finally, L-DOPA may exert intrinsic receptor-mediated actions independently of DA neurotransmission and can be processed into bioactive metabolites. In conclusion, L-DOPA exerts a surprisingly complex pattern of neurochemical effects of much greater scope that mere striatal transformation into DA in spared dopaminergic neurons. Their further experimental and clinical clarification should help improve both L-DOPA-based and novel strategies for controlling the motor and other symptoms of Parkinson's disease. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.4.1-3 | Award Amount: 4.84M | Year: 2008

Genomic instability is a characteristic of practically all human cancers. Recent results generated by members of this Consortium suggest that signs of genomic instability are evident from the very beginning of human cancer development, even in precancerous lesions. In these early lesions, the genomic instability affects primarily specific genomic loci, called common fragile sites. Because common fragile sites are very sensitive to perturbations in DNA replication, we proposed that cancer development from its very beginning is associated with DNA replication stress. A separate set of observations focused on telomeres and showed that short telomeres mimick DNA ends, activate the DNA damage checkpoint and promote genomic instability and cancer development. We propose here to study the role of DNA replication stress and short telomeres on driving genomic instability particularly in human precancerous lesions. Our studies will investigate the most common forms of cancer in the EU and will benefit from access to some of the largest databases of cancerous and precancerous lesions in Europe. Genomic instability will be explored using high resolution genomic arrays and the data will be correlated to clinical information on tumor progression. Further, analysis of proteins and genes involved in the cellular response to DNA replication stress and short telomeres will be explored using high throughput and targeted approaches and will be used to identify novel targets for cancer therapy.

Millan M.J.,Institute Of Recherche Servier
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2016

The human genome encodes a vast repertoire of protein non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), some specific to the brain. MicroRNAs, which interfere with the translation of target mRNAs, are of particular interest since their deregulation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains challenging to link the complex body of observations on miRNAs and AD into a coherent framework. Using extensive graphical support, this article discusses how a diverse panoply of miRNAs convergently and divergently impact (and are impacted by) core pathophysiological processes underlying AD: neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; aberrant generation of β-amyloid-42 (Aβ42); anomalies in the production, cleavage and post-translational marking of Tau; impaired clearance of Aβ42 and Tau; perturbation of axonal organisation; disruption of synaptic plasticity; endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response; mitochondrial dysfunction; aberrant induction of cell cycle re-entry; and apoptotic loss of neurons. Intriguingly, some classes of miRNA provoke these cellular anomalies, whereas others act in a counter-regulatory, protective mode. Moreover, changes in levels of certain species of miRNA are a consequence of the above-mentioned anomalies. In addition to miRNAs, circular RNAs, piRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and other types of ncRNA are being increasingly implicated in AD. Overall, a complex mesh of deregulated and multi-tasking ncRNAs reciprocally interacts with core pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. Alterations in ncRNAs can be detected in CSF and the circulation as well as the brain and are showing promise as biomarkers, with the ultimate goal clinical exploitation as targets for novel modes of symptomatic and course-altering therapy. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Millan M.J.,Institute Of Recherche Servier | Fone K.,University of Nottingham | Steckler T.,Janssen Research and Development | Horan W.P.,University of California at Los Angeles
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Schizophrenia is a complex and multifactorial disorder generally diagnosed in young adults at the time of the first psychotic episode of delusions and hallucinations. These positive symptoms can be controlled in most patients by currently-available antipsychotics. Conversely, they are poorly effective against concomitant neurocognitive dysfunction, deficits in social cognition and negative symptoms (NS), which strongly contribute to poor functional outcome. The precise notion of NS has evolved over the past century, with recent studies - underpinned by novel rating methods - suggesting two major sub-domains: "decreased emotional expression", incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech, and "avolition", which embraces amotivation, asociality and "anhedonia" (inability to anticipate pleasure). Recent studies implicate a dysfunction of frontocortico-temporal networks in the aetiology of NS, together with a disruption of cortico-striatal circuits, though other structures are also involved, like the insular and parietal cortices, amygdala and thalamus. At the cellular level, a disruption of GABAergic-glutamatergic balance, dopaminergic signalling and, possibly, oxytocinergic and cannibinoidergic transmission may be involved. Several agents are currently under clinical investigation for the potentially improved control of NS, including oxytocin itself, N-Methyl- d-Aspartate receptor modulators and minocycline. Further, magnetic-electrical "stimulation" strategies to recruit cortical circuits and "cognitive-behavioural-psychosocial" therapies likewise hold promise. To acquire novel insights into the causes and treatment of NS, experimental study is crucial, and opportunities are emerging for improved genetic, pharmacological and developmental modelling, together with more refined readouts related to deficits in reward, sociality and "expression". The present article comprises an integrative overview of the above issues as a platform for this Special Issue of European Neuropsychopharmacology in which five clinical and five preclinical articles treat individual themes in greater detail. This Volume provides, then, a framework for progress in the understanding - and ultimately control - of the debilitating NS of schizophrenia. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

Braun F.,University of Nantes | De Carne Trecesson S.,University of Nantes | Bertin-Ciftci J.,University of Nantes | Bertin-Ciftci J.,Institute Of Recherche Servier | And 2 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2013

It is widely accepted that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members promote cancer cell survival by binding to their pro-apoptotic counterparts, thereby preventing mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and cytotoxic caspase activation. Yet, these proteins do not only function as guardians of mitochondrial permeability, preserving it, and maintaining cell survival in the face of acute or chronic stress, they also regulate non-apoptotic functions of caspases and biological processes beyond MOMP from diverse subcellular localizations and in complex with numerous binding partners outside of the Bcl-2 family. In particular, some of the non-canonical effects and functions of Bcl-2 homologs lead to an interplay with E2F-1, NFκB, and Myc transcriptional pathways, which themselves influence cancer cell growth and survival. We thus propose that, by feedback loops that we currently have only hints of, Bcl-2 proteins may act as rulers of survival signaling, predetermining the apoptotic threshold that they also directly scaffold. This underscores the robustness of the control exerted by Bcl-2 homologs over cancer cell survival, and implies that small molecules compounds currently used in the clinic to inhibit their mitochondrial activity may be not always be fully efficient to override this control. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Juin P.,University of Nantes | Juin P.,Institute Of Cancerologie Of Louest Ico | Geneste O.,Institute Of Recherche Servier | Gautier F.,University of Nantes | And 4 more authors.
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2013

Cancer cells are subject to many apoptotic stimuli that would kill them were it not for compensatory prosurvival alterations. BCL-2-like (BCL-2L) proteins contribute to such aberrant behaviour by engaging a network of interactions that is potent at promoting survival but that is also fragile: inhibition of a restricted number of interactions may suffice to trigger cancer cell death. Currently available and novel compounds that inhibit these interactions could be efficient therapeutic agents if this phenotype of BCL-2L dependence was better understood at a molecular, cellular and systems level and if it could be diagnosed by relevant biomarkers. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Levasseur P.,Novexel Inc. | Girard A.-M.,Novexel Inc. | Girard A.-M.,Institute Of Recherche Servier | Miossec C.,Novexel Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

The novel β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam is a potent inhibitor of class A, class C, and some class D enzymes. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the ceftazidime-avibactam combination was determined for a collection of Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates; this collection was enriched for resistant strains, including strains with characterized serine β-lactamases. The inhibitor was added either at fixed weight ratios to ceftazidime or at fixed concentrations, with the latter type of combination consistently resulting in greater potentiation of antibacterial activity. In the presence of 4 μg/ml of avibactam, the ceftazidime MIC50 and MIC90 (0.25 and 2 μg/ml, respectively) were both below the CLSI breakpoint for ceftazidime. Further comparisons with reference antimicrobial agents were performed using this fixed inhibitor concentration. Against most ceftazidime-susceptible and-nonsusceptible isolates, the addition of avibactam resulted in a significant increase in ceftazidime activity, with MICs generally reduced 256-fold for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, 8-to 32-fold for CTX-M producers, and >128-fold for KPC producers. Overall, MICs of a ceftazidime-avibactam combination were significantly lower than those of the comparators piperacillin-tazobactam, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime and similar or superior to those of imipenem. ©2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Li Y.,Boston University | Xu S.,Boston University | Mihaylova M.M.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies | Zheng B.,Columbia University | And 12 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2011

AMPK has emerged as a critical mechanism for salutary effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolic disorders in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here we demonstrate that AMPK interacts with and directly phosphorylates sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP-1c and -2). Ser372 phosphorylation of SREBP-1c by AMPK is necessary for inhibition of proteolytic processing and transcriptional activity of SREBP-1c in response to polyphenols and metformin. AMPK stimulates Ser372 phosphorylation, suppresses SREBP-1c cleavage and nuclear translocation, and represses SREBP-1c target gene expression in hepatocytes exposed to high glucose, leading to reduced lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. Hepatic activation of AMPK by the synthetic polyphenol S17834 protects against hepatic steatosis, hyperlipidemia, and accelerated atherosclerosis in diet-induced insulin-resistant LDL receptor-deficient mice in part through phosphorylation of SREBP-1c Ser372 and suppression of SREBP-1c- and -2-dependent lipogenesis. AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of SREBP may offer therapeutic strategies to combat insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Galizzi J.-P.,Institute Of Recherche Servier | Lockhart B.P.,Institute Of Recherche Servier | Bril A.,Institute Of Recherches Internationales Servier
Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions | Year: 2013

Translational research is a continuum between clinical and basic research where the patient is the center of the research process. It brings clinical research to a starting point for the drug discovery process, permitting the generation of a more robust pathophysiological hypothesis essential for a better selection of drug targets and candidate optimization. It also establishes the basis of early proof for clinical concept studies, preferably in phase I, for which biomarkers and surrogate endpoints can often be used. Systems biology is a prerequisite approach to translational research where technologies and expertise are integrated and articulated to support efficient and productive realization of this concept. The first component of systems biology relies on omics-based technologies and integrates the changes in variables, such as genes, proteins and metabolites, into networks that are responsible for an organism' s normal and diseased state. The second component of systems biology is in the domain of computational methods, where simulation and modeling create hypotheses of signaling pathways, transcription networks, physiological processes or even cell- or organism-based models. The simulations aim to show the origin of perturbations of the system that lead to pathological states and what treatment could be achieved to ameliorate or normalize the system. This review discusses how translational research and systems biology together could improve global understanding of drug targets, suggest new targets and approaches for therapeutics, and provide a deeper understanding of drug effects. Taken together, these types of analyses can lead to new therapeutic options while improving the safety and efficacy of new and existing medications.

Millan M.J.,Institute Of Recherche Servier
Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Early-onset, familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rare and may be attributed to disease-causing mutations. By contrast, late-onset, sporadic (non-Mendelian) AD is far more prevalent and reflects the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors, together with the disruption of epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression. Accordingly, abnormal patterns of histone acetylation and methylation, as well as anomalies in global and promoterspecific DNA methylation, have been documented in AD patients, together with a deregulation of noncoding RNA. In transgenic mouse models for AD, epigenetic dysfunction is likewise apparent in cerebral tissue, and it has been directly linked to cognitive and behavioral deficits in functional studies. Importantly, epigenetic deregulation interfaces with core pathophysiological processes underlying AD: excess production of Aβ42, aberrant post-translational modification of tau, deficient neurotoxic protein clearance, axonal-synaptic dysfunction, mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, and cell cycle re-entry. Reciprocally, DNA methylation, histone marks and the levels of diverse species of microRNA are modulated by Aβ42, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. In conclusion, epigenetic mechanisms are broadly deregulated in AD mainly upstream, but also downstream, of key pathophysiological processes. While some epigenetic shifts oppose the evolution of AD, most appear to drive its progression. Epigenetic changes are of irrefutable importance for AD, but they await further elucidation from the perspectives of pathogenesis, biomarkers and potential treatment. © 2014, AICH - Servier Research Group.

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