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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Delalande-Le Moue llic M.,CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources | Delalande-Le Moue llic M.,CNRS Hydrology and Geochemistry Laboratory of Strasbourg | Delalande-Le Moue llic M.,University Paris - Sud | Delalande-Le Moue llic M.,CNRS Paris Institute of Global Physics | And 10 more authors.
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

•We show unprecedented data on the chemical and isotopic composition of waters from Lake Ngozi and its hydrological network.•These data give evidence of an unusually weakly stratified and high-PCO2 lake.•We modelled first hydrological budget of Lake Ngozi.•We discussed the origin of lake salinity and more specifically the origin of high chloride concentrations of Lake Ngozi. . Located on the triple rift junction hosting the Karonga-Usungu depression in Tanzania, Lake Ngozi is the second largest crater lake of the East African Rift. The lake has a number of peculiar features: it has a near constant water level, no permanent surface inlets and outlets, it is vertically well-mixed, with homogeneous distribution of temperature and chemical composition, and it is characterised by near neutral to slightly acid Na-Cl waters of comparatively high salinity and high P-CO2. Based on the different chemical signature of surface and ground waters (low-Cl type) from lake waters, mass balance methods have been applied to investigate lake dynamics. Water enters the lake mainly by precipitation and groundwater inflow, and leaves by groundwater outflow and evaporation. A large groundwater outflow of 2.4myr-1 has been estimated. The high salinity, Na-Cl signature of Lake Ngozi waters, together with 3He/4He ratios measured on dissolved gases (between 7 and 8.3 Ra) and high-PCO2 values estimated all along the water vertical column indicate the inflow of deep-seated fluids, likely magmatic in origin, into the lake. The existence of a hydrothermal system possibly at 250°C in the root of the volcanic edifice is also hypothesised on the basis of solute geothermometry. Despite the current lack of vertical stratification, the lake is suspected to act as condenser for CO2 and other gases of deep magmatic origin, and should be then further monitored for the risk of limnic eruptions as well as for environmental and climatic concerns. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hubert N.,University Of La Re Union | Hubert N.,University of Perpignan | Paradis E.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Of Veloppement | Bruggemann H.,University Of La Re Union | Planes S.,University of Perpignan
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2011

Theories of species coexistence have played a central role in ecology and evolutionary studies of the origin and maintenance of biodiversity in highly diverse communities. The concept of niche and associated theories predict that competition for available ecological space leads to a ceiling in species richness that influences further diversification patterns. By contrast, the neutral theory supports that speciation is stochastic and diversity independent. We examined the phylogenetic community structure and diversification rates in three families and 14 sites within coral reef fish communities from the Indian and Pacific oceans. Using the phylogenetic relationships among 157 species estimated with 2300 bp of mitochondrial DNA, we tested predictions in terms of species coexistence from the neutral and niche theories. At the regional scale, our findings suggest that phylogenetic community structure shifts during community assembly to a pattern of dispersion as a consequence of allopatric speciation in recent times but overall, variations in diversification rates did not relate with sea level changes. At the local scale, the phylogenetic community structure is consistent with a neutral model of community assembly since no departure from a random sorting of species was observed. The present results support a neutral model of community assembly as a consequence of the stochastic and unpredictable nature of coral reefs favoring generalist and sedentary species competing for living space rather than trophic resources. As a consequence, the observed decrease in diversification rates may be seen as the result of a limited supply of living space as expected in a finite island model. © 2011 The Authors. Source


Doritchamou J.,University of Paris Descartes | Doritchamou J.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Of Veloppement | Doritchamou J.,University Abomey Calavi | Sossou-tchatcha S.,University Abomey Calavi | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Pregnant women become susceptible to malaria infection despite their acquired immunity to this disease from childhood. The placental sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) is the major feature of malaria during pregnancy, due to ability of these parasites to bind chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placenta through the VAR2CSA protein that parasites express on the surface of IE. We collected parasites at different times of pregnancy and investigated the adhesion pattern of freshly collected isolates on the three well described host receptors (CSPG, CD36 and ICAM-1). Var genes transcription profile and VAR2CSA surface-expression were assessed in these isolates. Although adhesion of IE to CD36 and ICAM-1 was observed in some isolates, CSA-adhesion was the predominant binding feature in all isolates analyzed. Co-existence in the peripheral blood of several adhesion phenotypes in early pregnancy isolates was observed, a diversity that gradually tightens with gestational age in favour of the CSA-adhesion phenotype. Infections occurring in primigravidae were often by parasites that adhered more to CSA than those from multigravidae. Data from this study further emphasize the specificity of CSA adhesion and VAR2CSA expression by parasites responsible for pregnancy malaria, while drawing attention to the phenotypic complexity of infections occurring early in pregnancy as well as in multigravidae. © 2014 Doritchamou et al. Source

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