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De Beaudrap P.,Ird Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Diouf A.,Fann University Hospital Center | Bousso Niang K.,Fann University Hospital Center
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

In 1998, the cohort ANRS 1215 was launched in Senegal with one of the first African antiretroviral treatment programs. Four hundred forty four HIV-infected adults started on ART were included between 1998 and 2004, and followed up to 2010. Mortality before 6 months was 15.6/100 person-year (PY) and associated to the initial disease severity. It decreased to 3.36/100 PY thereafter. The cumulative risks of virologic failure at 60 months and of drug resistance at 48 months were 25% and 16%, respectively. © 2014, Springer-Verlag France. Source

Guillemot N.,Ird Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Guillemot N.,Agrocampus Ouest | Chabanet P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Le Pape O.,Agrocampus Ouest
Coral Reefs | Year: 2010

The impacts of the unusually strong Cyclone Erica (March 2003) on coral reef habitats at a site located on the northwest coast of New Caledonia (South Pacific) were assessed using a 6-year data set (2002-2007). We examined the interannual variations of key variables describing reef habitats (live hard and soft corals, dead corals in place, coral debris, algae and relative proportion of mechanically vulnerable and resistant live hard corals). The cyclone-induced disturbances of habitats differed according to three reef types: patch reefs, barrier reefs far from passes (more than 3 km from the nearest pass) and barrier reefs near passes (less than 3 km from the nearest pass). Short-term mechanical damage was detected on the three-dimensional structure of reef habitats with a notable shift from a community dominated by mechanically vulnerable corals to one dominated by resistant corals on barrier reefs far from passes. The history of habitats and their pre-disturbance characteristics, in link with local hydrodynamics, was found to influence their short-term susceptibility to extreme events such as cyclones. However, the most significant effects appeared in the midterm (within 2 years after the cyclone) as the cover of live hard corals significantly decreased by approximately 45% between 2002 and 2004 on all reef types. The short- and midterm disturbances of coral reef habitats are discussed with regard to published temporal variations in reef fish assemblages, underlining the delayed effects of this cyclonic event on fish as well as benthic habitats. Coral reef habitats and live corals had shown significant patterns of recovery 4 years after the cyclone, followed by similar recovery in fish community, suggesting good resilience in a face of this major natural disturbance in an area under moderate anthropogenic pressure. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

Larmarange J.,University of Paris Descartes | Wade A.S.,Institute dHygiene Sociale | Diop A.K.,Institute dHygiene Sociale | Diop O.,Institute dHygiene Sociale | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Men who have sex with other men (MSM) are a vulnerable population in Africa that has been insufficiently explored. Given the high rate of bisexuality among MSM (73% in the past year), it is important to understand their risktaking behaviors regarding both men and women. Methodology/Principal Findings: A socio-behavioral survey was carried out in 2007 among 501 MSM recruited using the snowball sampling method. We explore in this article why a condom was not used during last sexual intercourse with a man and with a woman, taking into account the respondent's characteristics, type of relationship and the context of the sexual act. In the survey, 489 men reported that they had had sexual intercourse at least once with another man during the previous year, and 358 with a man and with a woman. The main risk factors for not using a condom at last sexual intercourse with another man were having sex in a public place (aOR = 6.26 [95%CI: 2.71-14.46]), non-participation in an MSM prevention program (aOR = 3.47 [95%CI: 2.12-5.69]), a 19 years old or younger partner (aOR = 2.6 [95%CI: 1.23-4.53]), being 24 years or younger (aOR = 2.07 [95%CI: 1.20-3.58]) or being 35 years or over (aOR = 3.08 [95%CI:1.11-8.53]) and being unemployed (aOR = 0.36 [95%CI: 0.10-1.25]). The last sexual intercourse with the respondent's wife was hardly ever protected (2%). With women, the other factors were a 15 years or younger partner (aOR = 6.45 [95%CI: 2.56-16.28]), being educated (primary: aOR = 0.45 [95%CI: 0.21-0.95], secondary or higher: aOR = 0.26 [95%CI: 0.11-0.62]), being a student (aOR = 2.20 [95%CI: 1.07-4.54]) or unemployed (aOR = 3.72 [95%CI: 1.31-10.61]) and having participated in a MSM prevention program (aOR = 0.57 [95%CI: 0.34-0.93]). Conclusion: Having participated in a prevention program specifically targeting MSM constitutes a major prevention factor. However, these programs targeting MSM must address their heterosexual practices and the specific risks involved. © 2010 Larmarange et al. Source

Zulkafli Z.,Imperial College London | Buytaert W.,Imperial College London | Onof C.,Imperial College London | Lavado W.,Servicio Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia SENAMHI | Guyot J.L.,Ird Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2013

Global land surface models (LSMs) such as the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) are originally developed to provide surface boundary conditions for climate models. They are increasingly used for hydrological simulation, for instance to simulate the impacts of land use changes and other perturbations on the water cycle. This study investigates how well such models represent the major hydrological fluxes at the relevant spatial and temporal scales-an important question for reliable model applications in poorly understood, data-scarce environments. The JULES-LSM is implemented in a 360 000 km2 humid tropical mountain basin of the Peruvian Andes-Amazon at 12-km grid resolution, forced with daily satellite and climate reanalysis data. The simulations are evaluated using conventional discharge-based evaluation methods, and by further comparing the magnitude and internal variability of the basin surface fluxes such as evapotranspiration, throughfall, and surface and subsurface runoff of the model with those observed in similar environments elsewhere. We find reasonably positive model efficiencies and high correlations between the simulated and observed streamflows, but high root-mean-square errors affecting the performance in smaller, upper sub-basins. We attribute this to errors in the water balance and JULES-LSM's inability to model baseflow. We also found a tendency to under-represent the high evapotranspiration rates of the region. We conclude that strategies to improve the representation of tropical systems to be (1) addressing errors in the forcing and (2) incorporating local wetland and regional floodplain in the subsurface representation. © 2013 Author(s). Source

Benefice E.,Ird Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Luna-Monrroy S.,Ird Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Luna-Monrroy S.,Higher University of San Andres | Lopez-Rodriguez R.,Inlasa Instituto Nacional Of Laboratorios En Salud
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2010

Populations in Bolivian Amazonia are exposed to mercury contamination through fish ingestion. A group of 170 Amerindian women living along the banks of the Beni River were examined in order to detect any adverse effects on their health consistent with the toxic effects of mercury. The mercury content of the women's hair (H-Hg) was used as the bio-indicator of mercury exposure. The women answered a 24-h food recall questionnaire on the frequency of their fish consumption. They also underwent a clinical examination with their weight, stature, hemoglobin concentration in blood, and blood pressure being recorded. Significant relationships were found between fishing practices, the frequency of fish consumption and H-Hg levels with mercury contaminated women (H-Hg>5. μg/g) being more likely to present neurological abnormalities (paresthesia, static and dynamic imbalance, poor motor coordination) than non-contaminated women. No relationship was found between blood pressure and mercury levels. Women with higher H-Hg reported more infant deaths than did women with lower levels. A logistic regression analysis which included socio-cultural traits, fish consumption habits and health characteristics was performed in order to determine the risks of contamination. Contaminated women were more likely to belong to those communities pursuing traditional fishing activities; moreover these women tended to be younger and frailer than other. They also exhibited mild neurological abnormalities and reported more infant deaths. These findings should stimulate local communities to take preventive actions directed towards the more "traditional" and vulnerable groups of population. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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