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Skovmand O.,Intelligent Insect Control | Ouedraogo T.D.A.,Center National Of Recherche Et Of Formation Sur Le Paludisme | Sanogo E.,Center National Of Recherche Et Of Formation Sur Le Paludisme | Samuelsen H.,Copenhagen University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

A field test of integrated vector control was conducted in a tropical urban setting with a combination of a floating, slow-release, granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus and environmental engineering measures (renovation of roads, collective water pumps, and cesspool lids). The targets were Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae in the two biggest towns of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Within the intervention zone, water pumping stations were improved and the surroundings drained to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water. Roads were leveled and given either simple gutters on each side or a concrete channel on one side to drain runoff water. Garbage containers were installed to provide an alternative to the drainage channels for waste disposal. Septic tanks were modified so that they could be emptied without destroying their lid. This study showed that it is possible to implement mosquito control in a tropical urban environment with teams of young people rapidly trained to apply a biological larvicide without any tools other than an iron bar to lift cesspool lids. Environmental improvements were initially costly, but demanded little subsequent expenditure. Local inhabitants' committees were mobilized to provide people with information and monitor the efficacy of the measures. Compared with what people spent individually on mosquito prevention and malaria medicine, these measures were not expensive, but many expected the community to pay for them from existing taxes, e.g., for water treatment and disposal. The necessary funding and logistics require a municipal organization with neighborhood support, if the measures are to be effective. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source

Arvor D.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | Jonathan M.,Embrapa Solos | Meirelles M.S.P.,Embrapa Solos | Meirelles M.S.P.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Agriculture in Brazilian Amazonia is going through a period of intensification. Crop mapping is important in understanding the way this intensification is occurring and the impact it is having. Two successive classifications based on MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)-TERRA/EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) time series are applied (1) to map agricultural areas and (2) to identify five crop classes. These classes represent agricultural practices involving three commercial crops (soybean, maize and cotton) planted in single or double cropping systems. Both classifications are based on five steps: (1) analysis of theMODIS/EVI time series, (2) application of a smoothing algorithm, (3) application of a feature selection/extraction process to reduce the data set dimensionality, (4) application of a classifier and (5) application of a post-classification treatment. The first classification detected 95% of the agricultural areas (5 617 250 ha during the 2006-2007 harvest) and correlation coefficients with agricultural statistics exceeded 0.98 for the three crop classes at municipality level. The second classification (overall accuracy = 74% and kappa index = 0.675) allowed us to obtain the spatial variability mapping of agricultural practices in the state of Mato Grosso. A total of 30% of the total planted area was cultivated through double cropping systems, especially along the BR163 highway and in the Parecis plateau region. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Mermoz S.,University Paul Sabatier | Rejou-Mechain M.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | Rejou-Mechain M.,Institute Of Recherche Et Developpement | Rejou-Mechain M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 5 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2015

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is one of the most promising remote sensors to map forest carbon. The unique spaceborne and long-wavelength SAR data currently available are L-band data, but their relationship with forest biomass is still controversial, particularly for high biomass values. While many studies assume a complete loss of sensitivity above a saturation point, typically around 100t.ha-1, others assume a continuous positive correlation between SAR backscatter and biomass. The objective of this paper is to revisit the relationship between L-band SAR backscatter and dense tropical forest biomass for a large range of biomass values using both theoretical and experimental approaches. Both approaches revealed that after reaching a maximum value, SAR backscatter correlates negatively with forest biomass. This phenomenon is interpreted as a signal attenuation from the forest canopy as the canopy becomes denser with increasing biomass. This result has strong implications for L-band vegetation mapping because it can lead to a greater-than-expected under-estimation of biomass. The consequences for L-band biomass mapping are illustrated, and solutions are proposed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Metrich N.,University Paris Diderot | Metrich N.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Allard P.,University Paris Diderot | Allard P.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Petrology | Year: 2011

Siwi caldera, in the Vanuatu arc (Tanna island), is a rare volcanic complex where both persistent eruptive activity (Yasur volcano) and rapid block resurgence (Yenkahe horst) can be investigated simultaneously during a post-caldera stage. Here we provide new constraints on the feeding system of this volcanic complex, based on a detailed study of the petrology, geochemistry and volatile content of Yasur-Siwi bulk-rocks and melt inclusions, combined with measurements of the chemical composition and mass fluxes of Yasur volcanic gases. Major and trace element analyses of Yasur-Siwi volcanic rocks, together with literature data for other volcanic centers, point to a single magmatic series and possibly long-lived feeding of Tanna volcanism by a homogeneous arc basalt. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions show that the parental basaltic magma, which produces basaltic-trachyandesites to trachyandesites by ∼50-70% crystal fractionation, is moderately enriched in volatiles (∼1 wt % H. 2O, 0·1 wt % S and 0·055 wt % Cl). The basaltic-trachyandesite magma, emplaced at between 4-5 km depth and the surface, preserves a high temperature (1107 ± 15°C) and constant H. 2O content (~1 wt %) until very shallow depths, where it degasses extensively and crystallizes. These conditions, maintained over the past 1400 years of Yasur activity, require early water loss during basalt differentiation, prevalent open-system degassing, and a relatively high heat flow (~10. 9W). Yasur volcano releases on average ≥ 13·4 × 10. 3 tons d. -1 of H. 2O and 680 tons d. -1 of SO. 2, but moderate amounts of CO. 2 (840 tons d. -1), HCl (165 tons d. -1), and HF (23 tons d. -1). Combined with melt inclusion data, these gas outputs constrain a bulk magma degassing rate of ~5 × 10. 7 m. 3 a. -1, about a half of which is due to degassing of the basaltic-trachyandesite. We compute that 25 km. 3 of this magma have degassed without erupting and have accumulated beneath Siwi caldera over the past 1000 years, which is one order of magnitude larger than the accumulated volume uplift of the Yenkahe resurgent block. Hence, basalt supply and gradual storage of unerupted degassed basaltic-trachyandesite could easily account for (or contribute to) the Yenkahe block resurgence. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Hancart-Petitet P.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Hancart-Petitet P.,Aix - Marseille University | Dumas C.,Aix - Marseille University | Faurand-Tournaire A.-L.,Aix - Marseille University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: The frequency of bloodborne pathogen healthcare-associated infections is thought to be high in developing Southeast Asian Countries. The underlying social-cultural logics contributing to the risks of transmission are rarely studied. This report provides some insights on the social and cultural factors that shape hygiene practices in Cambodian health care settings. Methods. We conducted qualitative surveys in various public and private health facilities in Phnom Penh, the capital city and in provinces. We observed and interviewed 319 participants, health care workers and patients, regarding hygiene practices and social relationships amongst the health care staff and with patients. We also examined the local perceptions of hygiene, their impact on the relationships between the health care staff and patients, and perceptions of transmission risks. Data collection stem from face to face semi-structured and open-ended interviews and focus group discussions with various health care staffs (i.e. cleaners, nurses, midwives and medical doctors) and with patients who attended the study health facilities. Results: Overall responses and observations indicated that hygiene practices were burdened by the lack of adequate materials and equipements. In addition, many other factors were identified to influence and distort hygiene practices which include (1) informal and formal social rapports in hospitals, (2) major infection control roles played by the cleaners in absence of professional acknowledgment. Moreover, hygiene practices are commonly seen as an unessential matter to be devoted to low-ranking staff. Conclusion: Our anthropological findings illustrate the importance of comprehensive understanding of hygiene practices; they need to be considered when designing interventions to improve infection control practices in a Cambodian medical setting. © 2011 Hancart-Petitet et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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