Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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Diabate S.,University of Montréal | Druetz T.,University of Montréal | Bonnet E.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Kouanda S.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Periodic mass distributions contribute significantly to universal access to insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). However, due to the limited number of nets distributed, needs remain unsatisfied, particularly in large households.Methods. This study was conducted in Kaya health district following the 2010 mass distribution of ITNs in Burkina Faso. Data were collected on the socio-economic and geo-spatial characteristics and ITN possession and utilization levels of 2,004 households. The study explored: 1) ITN access, in terms of intra-household saturation with ITNs (households with at least one ITN for every two members) correctly installed and in very good physical condition; and 2) factors influencing the decision to place under-five children under a net. Particular attention was given to vector control activities undertaken by mothers.Results: Of the 2,004 households, 90% possessed at least one ITN. However, intra-household saturation with ITNs was below 60% in small households and below 20% in large ones (>6 members). Crude proportion ratios comparing possession and levels of intra-household saturation with ITNs varied between 1.5 (small households) and 7.8 (large households). The proportions of households with ITNs for every two members that were correctly hung or in very good physical condition ranged from 0% to 6.5% in large households and 27.8% to 40.7% in small ones. ITN use to protect under-five children was lower in large households; it was significantly higher when there was at least one ITN for every two members. In large households, it was significantly higher when a child had experienced an episode of any illness in the previous two weeks and when the mother had taken actions to control vector proliferation. In small households, ITN use was significantly higher in families with agricultural land and children aged 12-23 months.Conclusion: Ownership rates were high, but real access to bed nets remained limited. The allocation process disadvantages large families. Real access to bed nets implies they are available, properly installed, and in good condition. More post-campaign awareness-raising activities targeting preventive practices in households could foster more effective ITN use. © 2014Diabaté et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ridde V.,University of Montréal | Ridde V.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | Yaogo M.,Agence de formation De recherche et dexpertise en sante pour lAfrique AFRICSANTE | Yaogo M.,Catholic University of West Africa | And 5 more authors.
Evaluation and Program Planning | Year: 2011

Effective mechanisms to exempt the indigent from user fees at health care facilities are rare in Africa. A State-led intervention (2004-2005) and two action research projects (2007-2010) were implemented in a health district in Burkina Faso to exempt the indigent from user fees. This article presents the results of the process evaluation of these three interventions.Individual and group interviews were organized with the key stakeholders (health staff, community members) to document the strengths and weaknesses of key components of the interventions (relevance and uptake of the intervention, worst-off selection and information, financial arrangements). Data was subjected to content analysis and thematic analysis.The results show that all three intervention processes can be improved. Community-based targeting was better accepted by the stakeholders than was the State-led intervention. The strengths of the community-based approach were in clearly defining the selection criteria, informing the waiver beneficiaries, using a participative process and using endogenous funding. A weakness was that using endogenous funding led to restrictive selection by the community.The community-based approach appears to be the most effective, but it needs to be improved and retested to generate more knowledge before scaling up. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ridde V.,University of Montréal | Ridde V.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | Haddad S.,University of Montréal | Nikiema B.,University of Montréal | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: User fees were generalized in Burkina Faso in the 1990 s. At the time of their implementation, it was envisioned that measures would be instituted to exempt the poor from paying these fees. However, in practice, the identification of indigents is ineffective, and so they do not have access to care. Thus, a community-based process for selecting indigents for user fees exemption was tested in a district. In each of the 124 villages in the catchment areas of ten health centres, village committees proposed lists of indigents that were then validated by the health centres' management committees. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this community-based selection. Methods: An indigent-selection process is judged effective if it minimizes inclusion biases and exclusion biases. The study compares the levels of poverty and of vulnerability of indigents selected by the management committees (n = 184) with: 1) indigents selected in the villages but not retained by these committees (n = 48); ii) indigents selected by the health centre nurses (n = 82); and iii) a sample of the rural population (n = 5,900). Results: The households in which the three groups of indigents lived appeared to be more vulnerable and poorer than the reference rural households. Indigents selected by the management committees and the nurses were very comparable in terms of levels of vulnerability, but the former were more vulnerable socially. The majority of indigents proposed by the village committees who lived in extremely poor households were retained by the management committees. Only 0.36% of the population living below the poverty threshold and less than 1% of the extremely poor population were selected. Conclusions: The community-based process minimized inclusion biases, as the people selected were poorer and more vulnerable than the rest of the population. However, there were significant exclusion biases; the selection was very restrictive because the exemption had to be endogenously funded. © 2010 Ridde et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ridde V.,University of Montréal | Turcotte-Tremblay A.-M.,University of Montréal | Souares A.,University of Heidelberg | Lohmann J.,University of Heidelberg | And 7 more authors.
Implementation science : IS | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The low quality of healthcare and the presence of user fees in Burkina Faso contribute to low utilization of healthcare and elevated levels of mortality. To improve access to high-quality healthcare and equity, national authorities are testing different intervention arms that combine performance-based financing with community-based health insurance and pro-poor targeting. There is a need to evaluate the implementation of these unique approaches. We developed a research protocol to analyze the conditions that led to the emergence of these intervention arms, the fidelity between the activities initially planned and those conducted, the implementation and adaptation processes, the sustainability of the interventions, the possibilities for scaling them up, and their ethical implications.METHODS/DESIGN: The study adopts a longitudinal multiple case study design with several embedded levels of analyses. To represent the diversity of contexts where the intervention arms are carried out, we will select three districts. Within districts, we will select both primary healthcare centers (n =18) representing different intervention arms and the district or regional hospital (n =3). We will select contrasted cases in relation to their initial performance (good, fair, poor). Over a period of 18 months, we will use quantitative and qualitative data collection and analytical tools to study these cases including in-depth interviews, participatory observation, research diaries, and questionnaires. We will give more weight to qualitative methods compared to quantitative methods.DISCUSSION: Performance-based financing is expanding rapidly across low- and middle-income countries. The results of this study will enable researchers and decision makers to gain a better understanding of the factors that can influence the implementation and the sustainability of complex interventions aiming to increase healthcare quality as well as equity.


Ridde V.,University of Montréal | Ridde V.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | Queuille L.,University of Montréal | Kafando Y.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | Robert E.,University of Montréal
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2012

Background: While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods. This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors' attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results: The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors' attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a reorganization of practices, service rationing due to lack of reimbursement, and some overcharging or shifting of resources. Conclusions: This transversal analysis confirms the need to assign a great deal of importance to the implementation of user fees exemption policies once these decisions have been taken. It also highlights some practices that suggest avenues of future research. © 2012 Ridde et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Diabate S.,Laval University | Diabate S.,Saint Sacrement Hospital | Druetz T.,University of Montréal | Millogo T.,Institute Africain Of Sante Publique | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Introduction Larval source management has contributed to malaria decline over the past years. However, little is known about the impact of larval control practices undertaken at the household level on malaria transmission. Methods The study was conducted in Kaya health district after the 2010 mass distribution of insecticide treated-nets and the initiation of malaria awareness campaigns in Burkina Faso. The aim was to (i) estimate the level of domestic larval control practices (cleaning of the house and its surroundings, eradication of larval sources, and elimination of hollow objects that might collect water); (ii) identify key determinants; and (iii) explore the structural relationships between these practices, participation in awareness-raising activities and mothers' knowledge/attitudes/practices, and malaria prevalence among under-five children. Results Overall, 2004 households were surveyed and 1,705 under-five children were examined. Half of the mothers undertook at least one action to control larval proliferation. Mothers who had gone to school had better knowledge about malaria and were more likely to undertake domestic larval control practices. Living in highly exposed rural areas significantly decreased the odds of undertaking larval control actions. Mothers' participation in malaria information sessions increased the adoption of vector control actions and bednet use. Malaria prevalence was statistically lower among children in households where mothers had undertaken at least one vector control action or used bed-nets. There was a 0.16 standard deviation decrease in malaria prevalence for every standard deviation increase in vector control practices. The effect of bednet use on malaria prevalence was of the same magnitude. Conclusion Cleaning the house and its surroundings, eradicating breeding sites, and eliminating hollow objects that might collect water play a substantial role in preventing malaria among underfive. There is a need for national malaria control programs to include or reinforce training activities for community health workers aimed at promoting domestic larval control practices. © 2015 Diabaté et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Ridde V.,University of Montréal | Ridde V.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | Kouanda S.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | Yameogo M.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | And 2 more authors.
Evaluation and Program Planning | Year: 2013

In 2007, Burkina Faso launched a public policy to subsidize 80% of the cost of normal deliveries. Although women are required to pay only the remaining 20%, i.e., 900. F CFA (1.4 Euros), some qualitative evidence suggests they actually pay more. The aim of this study is to test and then (if confirmed) to understand the hypothesis that the amounts paid by women are more than the official fee, i.e., their 20% portion.A mixed method sequential explanatory design giving equal priority to both quantitative (n= 883) and qualitative (n= 50) methods was used in a rural health district of Ouargaye. Half (50%, median) of the women reported paying more than the official fee for a delivery. Health workers questioned the methodology of the study and the veracity of the women's reports. The three most plausible explanations for this payment disparity are: (i) the payments were for products used that were not part of the delivery kit covered by the official fee; (ii) the implementers had difficulty in understanding the policy; and (iii) there was improper conduct on the part of some health workers. Institutional design and organizational practices, as well as weak rule enforcement and organizational capacity, need to be considered more carefully to avoid an implementation gap in this public policy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ridde V.,University of Montréal | Ridde V.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | Kouanda S.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | Bado A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Since 2007, Burkina Faso has subsidized 80% of the costs of child birth. Women are required to pay 20% (900 F CFA = 1.4 Euros), except for the indigent, who are supposed to be exempted. The objective of the policy is to increase service utilization and reduce costs for households. We analyze the efficacy of the policy and the distribution of its benefits. The study was carried out in Ouargaye district. The analysis was based on two distinct cross-sectional household surveys, conducted before (2006; n = 1170) and after (2010; n = 905) the policy, of all women who had had a vaginal delivery in a public health centre. Medical expenses for delivery decreased from a median of 4,060 F CFA in 2006 to 900 F CFA in 2010 (p&0.001). There was pronounced contraction in the distribution of expenses and a reduction in interquartile range. Total expenses for delivery went from a median of 7,366 F CFA in 2006 to 4,750 F CFA in 2010 (p = 0.001). There was no exacerbation of the initial inequalities of the share in consumption after the policy. The distribution of benefits for medical expenses showed a progressive evolution. The greatest reduction in risk of excessive expenses was seen in women in the bottom quintile living less than 5 km from the health centres. Only 10% of those in the poorest quintile were exempted. The subsidy policy was more effective in Burkina Faso than in other African countries. All categories of the population benefited from this policy, including the poorest. Yet despite the subsidy, women still carry a significant cost burden; half of them pay more than they should, and few indigents are fully exempted. Efforts must still be made to reach the indigent and to reduce geographic barriers for all women. © 2012 Ridde et al.


PubMed | Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Du Cnrst, University of Montréal, Laval University and Institute Africain Of Sante Publique
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Larval source management has contributed to malaria decline over the past years. However, little is known about the impact of larval control practices undertaken at the household level on malaria transmission.The study was conducted in Kaya health district after the 2010 mass distribution of insecticide treated-nets and the initiation of malaria awareness campaigns in Burkina Faso. The aim was to (i) estimate the level of domestic larval control practices (cleaning of the house and its surroundings, eradication of larval sources, and elimination of hollow objects that might collect water); (ii) identify key determinants; and (iii) explore the structural relationships between these practices, participation in awareness-raising activities and mothers knowledge/attitudes/practices, and malaria prevalence among under-five children.Overall, 2004 households were surveyed and 1,705 under-five children were examined. Half of the mothers undertook at least one action to control larval proliferation. Mothers who had gone to school had better knowledge about malaria and were more likely to undertake domestic larval control practices. Living in highly exposed rural areas significantly decreased the odds of undertaking larval control actions. Mothers participation in malaria information sessions increased the adoption of vector control actions and bednet use. Malaria prevalence was statistically lower among children in households where mothers had undertaken at least one vector control action or used bed-nets. There was a 0.16 standard deviation decrease in malaria prevalence for every standard deviation increase in vector control practices. The effect of bednet use on malaria prevalence was of the same magnitude.Cleaning the house and its surroundings, eradicating breeding sites, and eliminating hollow objects that might collect water play a substantial role in preventing malaria among under-five. There is a need for national malaria control programs to include or reinforce training activities for community health workers aimed at promoting domestic larval control practices.

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