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Seaman J.A.,Colorado State University | Alout H.,Colorado State University | Meyers J.I.,Colorado State University | Stenglein M.D.,Colorado State University | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Ivermectin has been proposed as a novel malaria transmission control tool based on its insecticidal properties and unique route of acquisition through human blood. To maximize ivermectin's effect and identify potential resistance/tolerance mechanisms, it is important to understand its effect on mosquito physiology and potential to shift mosquito population age-structure. We therefore investigated ivermectin susceptibility and gene expression changes in several age groups of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Methods: The effect of aging on ivermectin susceptibility was analyzed in three age groups (2, 6, and 14-days) of colonized female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes using standard survivorship assays. Gene expression patterns were then analyzed by transcriptome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. RT-qPCR was used to validate transcriptional changes and also to examine expression in a different, colonized strain and in wild mosquitoes, both of which blood fed naturally on an ivermectin-treated person. Results: Mosquitoes of different ages and blood meal history died at different frequencies after ingesting ivermectin. Mortality was lowest in 2-day old mosquitoes exposed on their first blood meal and highest in 6-day old mosquitoes exposed on their second blood meal. Twenty-four hours following ivermectin ingestion, 101 and 187 genes were differentially-expressed relative to control blood-fed, in 2 and 6-day groups, respectively. Transcription patterns of select genes were similar in membrane-fed, colonized, and naturally-fed wild vectors. Transcripts from several unexpected functional classes were highly up-regulated, including Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) genes, peritrophic matrix-associated genes, and immune-response genes, and these exhibited different transcription patterns between age groups, which may explain the observed susceptibility differences. Niemann-Pick Type 2 genes were the most highly up-regulated transcripts after ivermectin ingestion (up to 160 fold) and comparing phylogeny to transcriptional patterns revealed that NPCs have rapidly evolved and separate members respond to either blood meals or to ivermectin. Conclusion: We present evidence of increased ivermectin susceptibility in older An. gambiae mosquitoes that had previously bloodfed. Differential expression analysis suggests complex midgut interactions resulting from ivermectin ingestion that likely involve blood meal digestion physiological responses, midgut microflora, and innate immune responses. Thus, the transcription of certain gene families is consistently affected by ivermectin ingestion, and may provide important clues to ivermectin's broad effects on malaria vectors. These findings contribute to the growing understanding of ivermectin's potential as a transmission control tool. © 2015 Seaman et al.

de Freece C.,University of Camerino | Toe L.P.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Esposito F.,University of Camerino | Diabate A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Favia G.,University of Camerino
International Health | Year: 2014

Background: Genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are emerging as a measure to control mosquito-borne diseases, but before any genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are released into the environment, it is imperative to establish regulatory standards incorporating public engagement. A previous project in Burkina Faso introduced a type of genetically modified cotton [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] cotton) that produces insecticide, and incorporated policies on public engagement. Methods: We explored the perspectives of Burkinabe' (citizens of Burkina Faso) on bio-agricultural exposure to GMOs and their receptiveness to the use of GMOs. Interviews were conducted in a village (Bondoukuy) and with representatives from stakeholder organizations. Results: The population may be very receptive to the use of GMMs against malaria, but may voice unfounded concerns that GMMs can transmit other diseases. It is important to constantly supply the population with correct and factual information. Conclusions: Investigating the application of Burkina Faso's biotechnology policies with regard to Bt cotton has shown that it may be conceivable in the future to have open discussions about the merits of GMM release. © The Author 2014.

Sawadogo P.S.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Namountougou M.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Toe K.H.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Rouamba J.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | And 12 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

The swarming behaviour of natural populations of Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii (formerly known as An. gambiae S and M forms, respectively) were investigated through longitudinal surveys conducted between July 2006 and October 2009 in two rural areas of south-western Burkina Faso where these forms are sympatric. In both sites, the majority of swarms were recorded above visual markers localised among houses. In Soumousso, a wooded area of savannah, 108 pairs caught in copula from 205 swarms were sampled; in VK7, a rice growing area, 491 couples from 250 swarms were sampled. If segregated swarms were the norm in both sites, many visual markers were shared by the two forms of An. gambiae. Furthermore, mixed swarms were collected annually in frequencies varying from one site to another, though no mixed inseminations were recorded, corroborating the low hybrid rate previously reported in the field. The occurrence of inter-specific mate-recognition mechanisms, which allow individuals to avoid hybridisation, is discussed. © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013.

Sawadogo S.P.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Sawadogo S.P.,University of Ouagadougou | Diabate A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Toe H.K.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

Before the release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes in an attempt to control local populations of malaria vectors, it is crucial to determine male traits involved in mating success. The effects of male size and age as determinants of male mating success in Anopheles gambiae s.s. were measured in the field and under laboratory conditions in Burkina Faso. First, the body sizes (estimated by wing length) of mating, swarming, and indoor-resting male mosquitoes were compared over a 3-yr period (2006-2009) from July to October in Soumousso and Vallée du Kou, two villages in western Burkina Faso. Second, the age structure of swarming and resting male mosquitoes were characterized based on the number of spermatocysts and the proportion of sperm in the reservoir of wild-caught male testis. Third, male age effects on the insemination rate of female An. gambiae were investigated in the laboratory. The mean size of males collected in copula was significantly larger than the mean for swarming males and indoor-resting males. The optimum male age for successful insemination of females was 4-8 d. These results suggest that male size is an important trait in determining male mating competitiveness in the field. Although age was not found to be a significant factor in mating competitiveness, it was significantly correlated with swarming behaviors in the field and insemination success in the laboratory. The implications of these results in terms of sexual selection in An. gambiae and vector control programs are further discussed. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.

Mosqueira B.,University of Valencia | Soma D.D.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Namountougou M.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | Poda S.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Irss Center Muraz | And 8 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015

A pilot study to test the efficacy of combining an organophosphate-based insecticide paint and pyrethroid-treated Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector mosquitoes was performed in a real village setting in Burkina Faso. Paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, comprised of two organophosphates (OPs) and an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR), was tested in combination with pyrethroid-treated LLINs. Efficacy was assessed in terms of mortality for 12 months using Early Morning Collections of malaria vectors and 30-minute WHO bioassays. Resistance to pyrethroids and OPs was assessed by detecting the frequency of L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations and Ace-1RG119S mutation, respectively. Blood meal origin was identified using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The combination of Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs was effective in killing 99.9-100% of malaria vector populations for 6 months regardless of the dose and volume treated. After 12 months, mortality rates decreased to 69.5-82.2%. The highest mortality rates observed in houses treated with 2 layers of insecticide paint and a larger volume. WHO bioassays supported these results: mortalities were 98.8-100% for 6 months and decreased after 12 months to 81.7-97.0%. Mortality rates in control houses with LLINs were low. Collected malaria vectors consisted exclusively of Anopheles coluzzii and were resistant to pyrethroids, with a L1014 kdr mutation frequency ranging from 60 to 98% through the study. About 58% of An. coluzzii collected inside houses had bloodfed on non-human animals. Combining Inesfly 5A IGR™ and LLINs yielded a one year killing efficacy against An. coluzzii highly resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to OPs that exhibited an anthropo-zoophilic behaviour in the study area. The results obtained in a real setting supported previous work performed in experimental huts and underscore the need to study the impact that this novel strategy may have on clinical malaria and malaria exposure in children in a similar area of high pyrethroid resistance in South-Western Burkina Faso. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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