Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz

Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz

Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
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Namountougou M.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Simard F.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Simard F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Baldet T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Malaria control programs are being jeopardized by the spread of insecticide resistance in mosquito vector populations. The situation in Burkina Faso is emblematic with Anopheles gambiae populations showing high levels of resistance to most available compounds. Although the frequency of insecticide target-site mutations including knockdown resistance (kdr) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1R) alleles has been regularly monitored in the area, it is not known whether detoxifying enzymes contribute to the diversity of resistance phenotypes observed in the field. Here, we propose an update on the phenotypic diversity of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae populations sampled from 10 sites in Burkina Faso in 2010. Susceptibility to deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, bendiocarb and fenithrotion was assessed. Test specimens (N = 30 per locality) were identified to species and molecular form and their genotype at the kdr and Ace-1 loci was determined. Detoxifying enzymes activities including non-specific esterases (NSEs), oxydases (cytochrome P450) and Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs) were measured on single mosquitoes (N = 50) from each test locality and compared with the An. gambiae Kisumu susceptible reference strain. In all sites, mosquitoes demonstrated multiple resistance phenotypes, showing reduced mortality to several insecticidal compounds at the same time, although with considerable site-to-site variation. Both the kdr 1014L and Ace-1R 119S resistant alleles were detected in the M and the S forms of An. gambiae, and were found together in specimens of the S form. Variation in detoxifying enzyme activities was observed within and between vector populations. Elevated levels of NSEs and GSTs were widespread, suggesting multiple resistance mechanisms segregate within An. gambiae populations from this country. By documenting the extent and diversity of insecticide resistance phenotypes and the putative combination of their underlying mechanisms in An. gambiae mosquitoes, our work prompts for new alternative strategies to be urgently developed for the control of major malaria vectors in Burkina Faso. © 2012 Namountougou et al.

N'fale S.,CentreNational de Recherche et de la Formation sur Paludisme | Dabire R.K.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Malaria control is dependent on insecticides. Increases in prevalence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across Africa are well-documented. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the strength of this resistance and link it to the effectiveness of control tools. Using quantitative bioassays, we show that in Burkina Faso pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has increased in intensity in recent years and now exceeds 1,000- fold. In laboratory assays, this level of resistance renders insecticides used to impregnate bed nets ineffective. Thus, the level of personal and community protection afforded by long-lasting insecticide-treated net campaigns will probably be reduced. Standardized methods are needed to quantify resistance levels in malaria vectors and link these levels to failure of vector control methods. © 2014, Emerging Infectious Diseases. All Rights Reserved.

Toe K.H.,Center National Of Recherche Et Of La Formation Sur Le Paludisme | N'Fale S.,Center National Of Recherche Et Of La Formation Sur Le Paludisme | Dabire R.K.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Since 2011, the level of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria mosquito, Anopheles coluzzi, has increased to such an extent in Burkina Faso that none of the long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) currently in use throughout the country kill the local mosquito vectors. We investigated whether this observed increase was associated with transcriptional changes in field-caught Anopheles coluzzi using two independent whole-genome microarray studies, performed in 2011 and 2012. Results: Mosquitoes were collected from south-west Burkina Faso in 2011 and 2012 and insecticide exposed or non-exposed insects were compared to laboratory susceptible colonies using whole-genome microarrays. Using a stringent filtering process we identified 136 genes, including the well-studied detoxification enzymes (p450 monoxygenases and esterases) and non-detoxification genes (e.g. cell transporters and cuticular components), associated with pyrethroid resistance, whose basal expression level increased during the timeframe of the study. A subset of these were validated by qPCR using samples from two study sites, collected over 3years and marked increases in expression were observed each year. We hypothesise that these genes are contributing to this rapidly increasing resistance phenotype in An. coluzzi. A comprehensive analysis of the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations (L1014S, L1014F and N1575Y) revealed that the majority of the resistance phenotype is not explained by target-site modifications. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the recent and rapid increase in pyrethroid resistance observed in south-west Burkina Faso is associated with gene expression profiles described here. Over a third of these candidates are also overexpressed in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of An. coluzzi from neighbouring Côte d'Ivoire. This suite of molecular markers can be used to track the spread of the extreme pyrethroid resistance phenotype that is sweeping through West Africa and to determine the functional basis of this trait. © 2015 Toé et al.

Maiga H.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Dabire R.K.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Lehmann T.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Tripet F.,Keele University | Diabate A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2012

Anopheles gambiae mates in flight. Males gather at stationary places at sunset and compete for incoming females. Factors that account for male mating success are not known but are critical for the future of any genetic control strategy. The current study explored variations in nutritional reserves (sugars, glycogen, lipids, and proteins) in wild-caught swarming and resting males and evaluated the effect of body size and wing symmetry on male mating success. Our results showed that glycogen and sugar reserves are mobilized for flight. Males consume proportionally 5.9-fold as much energy derived from sugars in swarming activities than when they are at rest. Mated males were on average bigger than unmated ones (P<0.0001). A strong correlation between the left and right wings in both mated and unmated males was found and additional analysis on fluctuating asymmetry did not show any indication of mated males being more symmetrical than unmated ones. The distribution of wing size of mated males was focused around a central value, suggesting that intermediate size of males is advantageous in the An. gambiae mating system. The results are discussed in the context of sexual selection. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

Diabate A.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Diabate A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Yaro A.S.,University of Bamako | Dao A.,University of Bamako | And 3 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Anopheles gambiae mates in flight at particular mating sites over specific landmarks known as swarm markers. The swarms are composed of males; females typically approach a swarm, and leave in copula. This mating aggregation looks like a lek, but appears to lack the component of female choice. To investigate the possible mechanisms promoting the evolution of swarming in this mosquito species, we looked at the variation in mating success between swarms and discussed the factors that structure it in light of the three major lekking models, known as the female preference model, the hotspot model, and the hotshot model. Results: We found substantial variation in swarm size and in mating success between swarms. A strong correlation between swarm size and mating success was observed, and consistent with the hotspot model of lek formation, the per capita mating success of individual males did not increase with swarm size. For the spatial distribution of swarms, our results revealed that some display sites were more attractive to both males and females and that females were more attracted to large swarms. While the swarm markers we recognize help us in localizing swarms, they did not account for the variation in swarm size or in the swarm mating success, suggesting that mosquitoes probably are attracted to these markers, but also perceive and respond to other aspects of the swarming site. Conclusions: Characterizing the mating system of a species helps understand how this species has evolved and how selective pressures operate on male and female traits. The current study looked at male mating success of An. gambiae and discussed possible factors that account for its variation. We found that swarms of An. gambiae conform to the hotspot model of lek formation. But because swarms may lack the female choice component, we propose that the An. gambiae mating system is a lek-like system that incorporates characteristics pertaining to other mating systems such as scramble mating competition. © 2011 Diabaté et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Baldini F.,University of Perugia | Baldini F.,Harvard University | Baldini F.,University of Glasgow | Segata N.,University of Trento | And 8 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Wolbachia are maternally transmitted intracellular bacteria that invade insect populations by manipulating their reproduction and immunity and thus limiting the spread of numerous human pathogens. Experimental Wolbachia infections can reduce Plasmodium numbers in Anopheles mosquitoes in the laboratory, however, natural Wolbachia infections in field anophelines have never been reported. Here we show evidence of Wolbachia infections in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified Wolbachia sequences in both female and male germlines across two seasons, and determined that these sequences are vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. Whole-genome sequencing of positive samples suggests that the genetic material identified in An. gambiae belongs to a novel Wolbachia strain, related to but distinct from strains infecting other arthropods. The evidence of Wolbachia infections in natural Anopheles populations promotes further investigations on the possible use of natural Wolbachia-Anopheles associations to limit malaria transmission.

Assogba B.S.,University Abomey Calavi | Djogbenou L.,University Abomey Calavi | Saizonou J.,University Abomey Calavi | Diabate A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | And 6 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

The swarm structure of two sibling species, Anopheles gambiae coluzzii and Anopheles melas, was characterize to explore the ecological and environmental parameters associated with the formation of swarms and their spatial distribution. Swarms and breeding sites were searched and sampled between January and December 2010, and larval and adult samples were identified by PCR. During the dry season, 456 swarms of An. gambiae s.l. were sampled from 38 swarm sites yielding a total of 23,274 males and 76 females. Of these 38 swarming sites, 18 were composed exclusively of An. gambiae coluzzii and 20 exclusively of An. melas, presenting clear evidence of reproductive swarm segregation. The species makeup of couples sampled from swarms also demonstrated assortative mating. The swarm site localization was close to human dwellings in the case of the An. gambiae coluzzii and on salt production sites for An. melas. At the peak of the rainy season, swarms of An. melas were absent. These findings offer evidence that the ecological speciation of these two sibling species of mosquitoes is associated with spatial swarm segregation and assortative mating, providing strong support for the hypothesis that mate recognition is currently maintaining adaptive differentiation and promoting ecological speciation. Further studies on the swarming and mating systems of An. gambiae, with the prospect of producing a predictive model of swarm distribution, are needed to inform any future efforts to implement strategies based on the use of GMM or SIT. © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013.

Diabate A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Tripet F.,Keele University
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Malaria vector control relies heavily on the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). These, together with the combined drug administration efforts to control malaria, have reduced the death toll to less than 700,000 deaths/year. This progress has engendered real excitement but the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is challenging our ability to sustain and consolidate the substantial gains that have been made. Research is required to discover novel vector control tools that can supplement and improve the effectiveness of those currently available. Here, we argue that recent and continuing progress in our understanding of male mating biology is instrumental in the implementation of new approaches based on the release of either conventional sterile or genetically engineered males. Importantly, further knowledge of male biology could also lead to the development of new interventions, such as sound traps and male mass killing in swarms, and contribute to new population sampling tools. We review and discuss recent advances in the behavioural ecology of male mating with an emphasis on the potential applications that can be derived from such knowledge. We also highlight those aspects of male mating ecology that urgently require additional study in the future. © 2015 Diabate and Tripet.

Maiga H.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Niang A.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Sawadogo S.P.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Dabire R.K.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

A better knowledge of the different parameters that account for male mating success in the wild is critical to the development of genetic control strategies. In this study, we measured energy budgets (total sugar and glycogen) as the daily energetic investment in swarming males of An. gambiae s.s. M and S molecular forms from two different field locations, VK7 and Soumousso. We also looked at the difference between energetic reserves in mated males compared to unmated ones, and assessed wing length in both molecular forms to explore whether this phenotypic trait was involved in swarming behavior or mating success. The current study showed that the energetic cost of 25. min of swarming was around 50% of the male's sugar (M form: 48.5%, S form: 56.2%) and glycogen (M form: 53.1%, S form: 59%) reserves. However, no difference in carbohydrate content was observed between mated and unmated males. Mated males were found to be bigger than unmated ones, while intermediate size of males is advantageous in mating system, both in M and S molecular forms and when collected in two different locations. Regardless of the collection location, no difference in wing size was observed in swarming males collected early or late during a particular swarm. The results are discussed in the context sexual selection in different ecological locations. © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013.

Jones C.M.,Vector Group | Toe H.K.,Vector Group | Toe H.K.,Institute Of Recherche En Science Of La Sante Center Muraz | Toe H.K.,Center National Of Recherche Et Of La Formation Sur Paludisme | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba) have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose = 65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency = 0.4), which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa. © 2012 Jones et al.

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