Le Maire A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Le Maire A.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Teyssier C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Teyssier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
And 18 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010
In the absence of ligand, some nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), act as transcriptional repressors by recruiting corepressor complexes to target genes. This constitutive repression is crucial in metazoan reproduction, development and homeostasis. However, its specific molecular determinants had remained obscure. Using structural, biochemical and cell-based assays, we show that the basal repressive activity of RAR is conferred by an extended Β-strand that forms an antiparallel Β-sheet with specific corepressor residues. Agonist binding induces a Β-strand-to-α-helix transition that allows for helix H11 formation, which in turn provokes corepressor release, repositioning of helix H12 and coactivator recruitment. Several lines of evidence suggest that this structural switch could be implicated in the intrinsic repressor function of other nuclear receptors. Finally, we report on the molecular mechanism by which inverse agonists strengthen corepressor interaction and enhance gene silencing by RAR. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
El Messaoudi S.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
El Messaoudi S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
El Messaoudi S.,Montpellier University |
El Messaoudi S.,Institute regional du Cancer Montpellier |
And 10 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013
Despite the growing interest in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) analysis in various clinical fields, especially oncology and prenatal diagnosis, few studies on sample handling have been reported and no analytical consensus is available. The lack of consistency between the various protocols for sample handling and the techniques used for ccfDNA analysis is one of the major obstacles in translating ccfDNA analysis to clinical practice. Although this point is highlighted regularly in the published reviews on ccfDNA analysis, no standard operating procedure currently exists despite several ongoing clinical studies on ccfDNA analysis.This review examines the preanalytical parameters potentially affecting ccfDNA concentration and fragmentation at each preanalytical step from blood drawing to the storage of ccfDNA extracts.Analysis of data in the literature and our own observations revealed the influence of preanalytical factors on ccfDNA analysis. Based on these data, we determined the optimal preanalytical protocols for ccfDNA analysis and ultimately, a guideline for the translation of ccfDNA analysis in routine clinical practice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Belguise K.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
Belguise K.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Belguise K.,Montpellier University |
Milord S.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
And 10 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2012
Fra-1 is aberrantly expressed in a large number of cancer cells and tissues, and emerging evidence suggests an important role for this Fos family protein in both oncogenesis and the progression or maintenance of many tumour types. Here, we show that the concentration of Fra-1 is high in invasive oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative (ER) breast cancer cell lines, regardless of their Ras pathway status. All of the ER cells express high levels of activated PKCθ, and the inhibition of PKCθ activity using RNA interference or the expression of a dominant-negative mutant results in a dramatic reduction in Fra-1 abundance. Conversely, the ectopic expression of constitutively active PKCθ leads to Fra-1 phosphorylation and accumulation in poorly invasive ER cells. This accumulation is due to the stabilisation of the Fra-1 protein through PKCθ signalling, whereas other members of the PKC family are ineffective. Both Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and ERK1/2, whose activities are upregulated by PKCθ, participate in PKCθ-driven Fra-1 stabilisation. Interestingly, their relative contributions appear to be different depending on the cell line studied. ERK1/2 signalling has a major role in ER MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas Fra-1 accumulation occurs mainly through SPAK signalling in ER BT549 cells. Fra-1 mutational analysis shows that the phosphorylation of S265, T223 and T230 is critical for PKCθ-driven Fra-1 stabilisation. Phosphorylation of the protein was confirmed using specific antisera against Fra-1 phosphorylated on T223 or S265. In addition, Fra-1 participates in PKCθ-induced cell invasion and is necessary for PKCθ-induced cell migration. In summary, we identified PKCθ signalling as an important regulator of Fra-1 accumulation in ER breast cancer cells. Moreover, our results suggest that PKCθ could participate in progression of some breast cancers and could be a new therapeutic target. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Elgqvist J.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
Elgqvist J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Elgqvist J.,Montpellier University |
Elgqvist J.,Institute Regional Of Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2014
This article presents a general discussion on what has been achieved so far and on the possible future developments of targeted alpha (a)-particle therapy (TAT). Clinical applications and potential benefits of TAT are addressed as well as the drawbacks, such as the limited availability of relevant radionuclides. Alpha-particles have a particular advantage in targeted therapy because of their high potency and specificity. These features are due to their densely ionizing track structure and short path length. The most important consequence, and the major difference compared with the more widely used ß--particle emitters, is that single targeted cancer cells can be killed by self-irradiation with a-particles. Several clinical trials on TAT have been reported, completed, or are on-going: four using 213Bi, two with 211At, two with 225Ac, and one with 212Pb/212Bi. Important and conceptual proof-of-principle of the therapeutic advantages of a-particle therapy has come from clinical studies with 223Ra-dichloride therapy, showing clear benefits in castration-resistant prostate cancer. © 2014 Elgqvist, Frost, Pouget and Albertsson.
Westover D.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute |
Ling X.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute |
Ling X.,Canget Biotekpharma, Llc |
Lam H.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute |
And 6 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2015
Background: Irinotecan is a camptothecin analogue currently used in clinical practice to treat advanced colorectal cancer. However, acquired resistance mediated by the drug efflux pump ABCG2 is a recognized problem. We reported on a novel camptothecin analogue, FL118, which shows anticancer activity superior to irinotecan. In this study, we sought to investigate the potency of FL118 versus irinotecan or its active metabolite, SN-38, in both in vitro and in vivo models of human cancer with high ABCG2 activity. We also sought to assess the potency and ABCG2 affinity of several FL118 analogues with B-ring substitutions. Methods: Colon and lung cancer cells with and without ABCG2 overexpression were treated with FL118 in the presence and absence of Ko143, an ABCG2-selective inhibitor, or alternatively by genetically modulating ABCG2 expression. Using two distinct in vivo human tumor animal models, we further assessed whether FL118 could extend time to progression in comparison with irinotecan. Lastly, we investigated a series of FL118 analogues with B-ring substitutions for ABCG2 sensitivity. Results: Both pharmacological inhibition and genetic modulation of ABCG2 demonstrated that, in contrast to SN-38, FL118 was able to bypass ABCG2-mediated drug resistance. FL118 also extended time to progression in both in vivo models by more than 50% compared with irinotecan. Lastly, we observed that FL118 analogues with polar substitutions had higher affinity for ABCG2, suggesting that the nonpolar nature of FL118 plays a role in bypassing ABCG2-mediated resistance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in contrast to SN-38 and topotecan, FL118 is a poor substrate for ABCG2 and can effectively overcome ABCG2-mediated drug resistance. Our findings expand the uniqueness of FL118 and support continued development of FL118 as an attractive therapeutic option for patients with drug-refractory cancers resulting from high expression of ABCG2. © Westover et al.; licensee BioMed Central.
Villoutreix B.O.,University Paris Diderot |
Laconde G.,University Paris Diderot |
Lagorce D.,University Paris Diderot |
Martineau P.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
In the past decade, the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has shown a high potential for the discovery of new treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Pharmacological inhibitors of Syk catalytic site bearing therapeutic potential have been developed, with however limited specificity towards Syk. To address this topic, we opted for the design of drug-like compounds that could impede the interaction of Syk with its cellular partners while maintaining an active kinase protein. To achieve this challenging task, we used the powerful potential of intracellular antibodies for the modulation of cellular functions in vivo, combined to structure-based in silico screening. In our previous studies, we reported the anti-allergic properties of the intracellular antibody G4G11. With the aim of finding functional mimics of G4G11, we developed an Antibody Displacement Assay and we isolated the drug-like compound C-13, with promising in vivo anti-allergic activity. The likely binding cavity of this compound is located at the close vicinity of G4G11 epitope, far away from the catalytic site of Syk. Here we report the virtual screen of a collection of 500,000 molecules against this new cavity, which led to the isolation of 1000 compounds subsequently evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effects using the Antibody Displacement Assay. Eighty five compounds were selected and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the liberation of allergic mediators from mast cells. Among them, 10 compounds inhibited degranulation with IC50 values ≤10 μM. The most bioactive compounds combine biological activity, significant inhibition of antibody binding and strong affinity for Syk. Moreover, these molecules show a good potential for oral bioavailability and are not kinase catalytic site inhibitors. These bioactive compounds could be used as starting points for the development of new classes of non-enzymatic inhibitors of Syk and for drug discovery endeavour in the field of inflammation related disorders. © 2011 Villoutreix et al.
Freiss G.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
Freiss G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Freiss G.,Montpellier University |
Chalbos D.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
And 2 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays a major role in many cellular functions implicated in cancer development and progression, but only a few of the known protein tyrosine phosphatases have yet been clearly classified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. PTPL1 interacts with tumor-associated proteins, suggesting a link between PTPL1, the PTPN13 gene product, and tumorigenesis or cancer progression. However, the impact of PTPL1 on cancer is divided between its capacity to counteract the activity of oncogenic tyrosine kinases and its inhibitory interaction with the death receptor, Fas. In this manuscript, we review the PTPL1-interacting proteins implicated in cancer. In addition, we examine the phenotypic arguments concerning both the PTPL1/Fas interaction and the ability of PTPL1 to inhibit signaling from growth factor receptors or oncogenes with tyrosine kinase activity. Finally, we compare the alterations in expression and the genetic and epigenetic arguments supporting an oncogenic or an anti-oncogenic impact of PTPL1. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Van Der Pas M.H.G.M.,VU University Amsterdam |
Van Dongen G.A.M.S.,VU University Amsterdam |
Cailler F.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
Pelegrin A.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
Meijerink W.J.H.J.,VU University Amsterdam
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques | Year: 2010
Background: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure alter the strategy for the treatment of patients with colon cancer. New techniques emerge that may provide the surgeon with a tool for accurate intraoperative detection of the SLNs. Methods: An SLN procedure of the sigmoid was used in six goats. During laparoscopy, the near-infrared dye indocyanine green (ICG) was injected into the subserosa of the sigmoid via a percutaneously inserted needle during four experiments and in the submucosa during colonoscopy in two experiments. After injection, the near-infrared features of a newly developed laparoscope were used to detect the lymph vessels and SLNs. At the end of the procedure, 2 h after injection, all the goats were killed, and autopsy was performed. During postmortem laparotomy, the sigmoid was removed and used for confirmation of ICG node uptake. Results: In all the procedures, the lymph vessels were easily detected by their bright fluorescent emission. In the first two experiments, no lymph nodes were detected. In the subsequent four experiments, human serum albumin was added to the ICG solution before injection to enable better lymph node entrapment. In all four experiments, at least one bright fluorescent lymph node was found after the lymph vessels had been tracked by their fluorescent guidance. The mean time between injection and SLN identification was 10 min. In two cases, the SLNs were located up to 5 mm into the fat tissue of the mesentery and were not seen by regular vision of the laparoscope. By switching on the near-infrared features of the scope, a clear bright dot became visible, which increased in intensity after opening of the mesentery. Conclusion: The SLN procedure for the sigmoid using near-infrared laparoscopy in the goat is a very promising technique. Achievements described in this report justify a clinical trial on the feasibility of ICG-guided SLN detection in humans. © 2010 The Author(s).
Fritz V.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
Fritz V.,Montpellier University |
Fajas L.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
Fajas L.,Montpellier University
Oncogene | Year: 2010
Cancer development involves major alterations in cells metabolism. Enhanced glycolysis and de novo fatty acids synthesis are indeed characteristic features of cancer. Cell proliferation and metabolism are tightly linked cellular processes. Others and we have previously shown a close relationship between metabolic responses and proliferative stimuli. In addition to trigger proliferative and survival signaling pathways, most oncoproteins also trigger metabolic changes to transform the cell. We present herein the view that participation of cell-cycle regulators and oncogenic proteins to cancer development extend beyond the control of cell proliferation, and discuss how these new functions may be implicated in metabolic alterations concomitant to the pathogenesis of human cancers. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Menez C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse |
Mselli-Lakhal L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse |
Foucaud-Vignault M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse |
Balaguer P.,Institute Of Recherche En Cancerologie Of Montpellier |
And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2012
Ivermectin is widely used in human and veterinary medicine for the control of helminth infections. Ivermectin is known to interact with P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1), being a good substrate and a potent inhibitor, however, the influence of ivermectin on the expression of the transporter has not been investigated. Expression of P-glycoprotein was investigated in cultured mouse hepatocytes acutely exposed to ivermectin. The two P-glycoprotein murine isoforms, Mdr1a and Mdr1b, mRNA levels were assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Ivermectin induced a clear time- and concentration-dependent up-regulation of Mdr1a and Mdr1b mRNA levels (as early as a 12-h exposure and up to 2.5-fold at 10 μM). Moreover, ivermectin-treated cells displayed enhanced cellular efflux of the P-glycoprotein substrate calcein that was inhibited by the P-glycoprotein blocker valspodar, providing evidence that the ivermectin-induced P-glycoprotein was functional. The mechanisms underlying these effects were investigated. Ivermectin-mediated Mdr1 mRNA induction was independent of the two nuclear receptors CAR and PXR, which are known to be involved in drug transporters regulation. Moreover, by using reporter cell lines that detects specific ligand-activated transcription factors, we showed that ivermectin did not displayed CAR, PXR or AhR ligand activities. However, studies with actinomycin D revealed that the half-life of Mdr1a and Mdr1b mRNA were significantly prolonged by two-fold in ivermectin-treated cells suggesting a post-transcriptional mode of ivermectin regulation. This study demonstrates for the first time that ivermectin induces P-glycoprotein overexpression through post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization, thus offering insight into the mechanism of reduced therapeutic efficacy and development of ivermectin-resistant parasites. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.