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Sedeaud A.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | Sedeaud A.,University of Paris Descartes | Marc A.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | Schipman J.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2012

Objectives: To investigate the evolution of anthropometric characteristics in World Cup rugby players and identify elements associated with performance. Design: Age, weight and height were collected for 2692 World Cup rugby players as well as rankings in each World Cup, and collective experience of winners, finalists, semifinalists and quarter finalists in comparison to the rest of the competitors. Anthropometric parameters were compared according to age and position (back and forwards). Results: From 1987 to 2007, forwards and backs have become heavier by 6.63 and 6.68 kg and taller by 0.61 and 1.09 cm, respectively. The collective experience of the forwards' pack is a value increasing with the final ranking attained, as well as the weight of forwards and the height of backs. Conclusions: For all Rugby World Cups, the highest performing teams have the tallest backs and heaviest forwards with the highest percentage of collective experience. Source


Sedeaud A.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | Sedeaud A.,University of Paris Descartes | Marc A.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | Marck A.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI) as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996-2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71) and BMI (r = 0.71) in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39). Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. «Lighter and smaller is better in endurance events but «heavier and taller is better for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distancespecific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities. © 2014 Sedeaud et al. Source


Marc A.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | Sedeaud A.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | Sedeaud A.,University of Paris Descartes | Guillaume M.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2014

As opposed to many other track-and-field events, marathon performances still improve. We choose to better describe the reasons for such a progression. The 100 best marathon runners archived from January 1990 to December 2011 for men and from January 1996 to December 2011 for women were analysed. We determined the impact of historical, demographic, physiological, seasonal and environmental factors. Performances in marathons improve at every level of performance (deciles). In 2011, 94% of the 100 best men athletes were African runners; among women athletes they were 52%. Morphological indicators (stature, body mass and Body Mass Index (BMI)) have decreased. We show a parabolic function between BMI and running speed. The seasonal distribution has two peaks, in spring (weeks 14 to 17) and autumn (weeks 41 to 44). During both periods, the average temperature of the host cities varies close to optimal value for long distance race. African men and women runners are increasingly dominating the marathon and pushing its record, through optimal eco-physiological conditions. © 2013 © 2013 Irmes (Institut de Recherche bioMédicale et d'Epidémiologie du Sport). Source


Berthelot G.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | Berthelot G.,University of Paris Descartes | Sedeaud A.,Irmes Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Et Depidemiologie Du Sport | Sedeaud A.,University of Paris Descartes | And 14 more authors.
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

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