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Blatteau J.-E.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Toulon | Barre S.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Toulon | Pascual A.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Toulon | Castagna O.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Toulon | And 4 more authors.

Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS) that can result in central nervous system disorders or even death. Bubbles alter the vascular endothelium and activate blood cells and inflammatory pathways, leading to a systemic pathophysiological process that promotes ischemic damage. Fluoxetine, a well-known antidepressant, is recognized as having anti-inflammatory properties at the systemic level, as well as in the setting of cerebral ischemia. We report a beneficial clinical effect associated with fluoxetine in experimental DCS. 91 mice were subjected to a simulated dive at 90 msw for 45 min before rapid decompression. The experimental group received 50 mg/kg of fluoxetine 18 hours before hyperbaric exposure (n = 46) while controls were not treated (n = 45). Clinical assessment took place over a period of 30 min after surfacing. At the end, blood samples were collected for blood cells counts and cytokine IL-6 detection. There were significantly fewer manifestations of DCS in the fluoxetine group than in the controls (43.5% versus 75.5%, respectively; p = 0.004). Survivors showed a better and significant neurological recovery with fluoxetine. Platelets and red cells were significantly decreased after decompression in controls but not in the treated mice. Fluoxetine reduced circulating IL-6, a relevant marker of systemic inflammation in DCS. We concluded that fluoxetine decreased the incidence of DCS and improved motor recovery, by limiting inflammation processes. © 2012 Blatteau et al. Source

Vallee N.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Toulon | Meckler C.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Toulon | Risso J.-J.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Toulon | Blatteau J.-E.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Toulon
Journal of Applied Physiology

Nitrogen supersaturation and bubble formation can occur in the vascular system after diving, leading to death and nervous disorders from decompression sickness (DCS). Bubbles alter the vascular endothelium, activate platelets, and lead to focal ischemia with neurological damage mediated by the mechanosensitive TREK-1 neuronal potassium ion channel that sets pre- and postsynaptic resting membrane potentials. We report a neuroprotective effect associated with TREK-1. C57Bl6 mice were subjected to decompression from a simulated 90 msw dive. Of 143 mice that were wild type (WT) for TREK-1, 51.7% showed no DCS, 27.3% failed a grip test, and 21.0% died. Of 88 TREK-1 knockouts (KO), 26.1% showed no DCS, 42.0% failed a grip test, and 31.8% died. Mice that did not express TREK-1 had lower DCS resistance and were more likely to develop neurological symptoms. We conclude that the TREK-1 potassium channel was neuroprotective for DCS. Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society. Source

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