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Baert P.,BCRM Cherbourg | Trousselard M.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Antenne Of La Tronche | Clervoy P.,Hopital dInstruction des Armees HIA Sainte Anne
Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Introduction: Although submarine accidents occur rarely, they sometimes result in many casualties. Although there are numerous reports on behavioral health consequences following surface vessel accidents, few studies have focused on these issues in the unique context of submarines. This paper reviews the history of significant acknowledged submarine accidents and reports the results of a behavioral health assessment following one recent accident. Methods: In 2007, a French nuclear-powered submarine (SNA Rubis) suffered a collision during a diving exercise off Toulon, France. All of the crew were individually assessed by a psychiatric team following the event for defusing. A follow-up assessment by auto-questionnaire was only conducted 8 mo after the accident using an anonymous subjective survey tool, the French version of the post-traumatic checklist scale (PCLS). Results: Of the 50 male crew, 48 (average age 28.8 ± 4.3 yr) completed the questionnaire. Most of the crew (95.8%) had talked about the accident with close relations or work colleagues, but only three discussed it with a doctor. Median PCLS score was 19 (range 17-45); 83.3% of the crew had scores ≤ 29; one subject met the criteria for PTSD. Discussion: Whether or not PTSD is an occupational hazard in submariners, this report highlights the difficulties in conducting behavioral health follow-up after serious accidents. © by the Aerospace Medical Association, Alexandria, VA.


Chaillou T.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Antenne Of La Tronche | Koulmann N.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Antenne Of La Tronche | Meunier A.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Antenne Of La Tronche | Chapot R.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Antenne Of La Tronche | And 3 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Hypoxia impairs the muscle fibre-type shift from fast-to-slow during post-natal development; however, this adaptation could be a consequence of the reduced voluntary physical activity associated with hypoxia exposure rather than the result of hypoxia per se. Moreover, muscle oxidative capacity could be reduced in hypoxia, particularly when hypoxia is combined with additional stress. Here, we used a model of muscle regeneration to mimic the fast-to-slow fibre-type conversion observed during post-natal development. We hypothesised that hypoxia would impair the recovery of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) profile and oxidative capacity during muscle regeneration. To test this hypothesis, the soleus muscle of female rats was injured by notexin and allowed to recover for 3, 7, 14 and 28 days under normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (5,500 m altitude) conditions. Ambient hypoxia did not impair the recovery of the slow MHC profile during muscle regeneration. However, hypoxia moderately decreased the oxidative capacity (assessed from the activity of citrate synthase) of intact muscle and delayed its recovery in regenerated muscle. Hypoxia transiently increased in both regenerated and intact muscles the content of phosphorylated AMPK and Pgc-1α mRNA, two regulators involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, while it transiently increased in intact muscle the mRNA level of the mitophagic factor BNIP3. In conclusion, hypoxia does not act to impair the fast-to-slow MHC isoform transition during regeneration. Hypoxia alters the oxidative capacity of intact muscle and delays its recovery in regenerated muscle; however, this adaptation to hypoxia was independent of the studied regulators of mitochondrial turn-over. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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