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Pardina E.,University of Barcelona | Ferrer R.,Institute Of Recerca Vall Dhebron Uab | Rivero J.,Hospital Universitari Mutua Of Terressa | Baena-Fustegueras J.A.,Surgery Unit | And 5 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), antithrombin-III (ATIII), fibrinogen, and white blood cell (WBC) levels in severely obese patients. We analyzed various plasma parameters implicated in the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathway from 34 severely obese patients before and 1, 6, and 12 months after gastric bypass. In obese people, ATIII, fibrinogen, and WBC levels were in the upper limit of the normal range, and all were higher and significantly different from nonobese people. After bariatric surgery, the ATIII level continued to be high during the first month and increased until 12 months, while fibrinogen decreased only at that time. PAI-1 plasma protein and PAI-1 mRNA levels in liver and adipose tissue show similar profiles and had a strong positive correlation (r = 0.576, P = 0.0003 in liver; r = 0.433, P = 0.0004 in adipose tissue). They were higher in obese patients compared with nonobese control, but tended to recover normal values 1 month after surgery. Thus, the liver and adipose tissue could be an important source of PAI-1 protein in plasma. Gastric bypass surgery leads to a normalization of the hematological profile and a decrease in PAI-1 levels, which entails a decrease of risk for thromboembolism in severely obese. Source

Molinos L.,Hospital Universitario Central Asturias | Zalacain R.,Servicio de Neumologia | Menendez R.,Hospital Universitario La Fe | Reyes S.,Hospital Universitario La Fe | And 13 more authors.
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2015

Rationale: Detection of the C-polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine by an immune-chromatographic test is increasingly used to evaluate patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Objectives: We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this test in the largest series of cases to date and used logistic regression models to determine predictors of positivity in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods: We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study of 4,374 patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Measurements and Main Results: The urinary antigen test was done in 3,874 cases. Pneumococcal infection was diagnosed in 916 cases (21%); 653 (71%) of these cases were diagnosed exclusively by the urinary antigen test. Sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 99.7%, respectively. Predictors of urinary antigen positivity were female sex; heart rate ≥125 bpm, systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, and SaO2 <90%; absence of antibiotic treatment; pleuritic chest pain; chills; pleural effusion; and blood urea nitrogen ≥30mg/dl.With at least six of all these predictors present, the probability of positivity was 52%. With only one factor present, the probability was only 12%. Conclusions: The urinary antigen test is a method with good sensitivity and excellent specificity in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia, and its use greatly increased the recognition of community-acquired pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae. With a specificity of 99.7%, this test could be used to direct simplified antibiotic therapy, thereby avoiding excess costs and risk for bacterial resistance that result from broad-spectrum antibiotics. We also identified predictors of positivity that could increase suspicion for pneumococcal infection or avoid the unnecessary use of this test. Copyright © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Bello S.,Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet | Menendez R.,Hospital Universitario La Fe | Torres A.,University of Barcelona | Reyes S.,Hospital Universitario La Fe | And 10 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Active smoking increases the risk of developing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and invasive pneumococcal disease, although its impact on mortality in pneumococcal CAP outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of current smoking status on pneumococcal CAP mortality.METHODS: We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study in 4,288 hospitalized patients with CAP. The study group consisted of 892 patients with pneumococcal CAP: 204 current smokers (22.8%), 387 nonsmokers (43.4%), and 301 exsmokers (33.7%).RESULTS: Mortality at 30 days was 3.9%: 4.9% in current smokers vs 4.3% in nonsmokers and 2.6% in exsmokers. Current smokers with CAP were younger (51 years vs 74 years), with more alcohol abuse and fewer cardiac, renal, and asthma diseases. Current smokers had lower CURB-65 (confusion , uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age ≥ 65 years) scores, although 40% had severe sepsis at diagnosis. Current smoking was an independent risk factor (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-13.5; P = .001) for 30-day mortality of pneumococcal CAP aft er adjusting for age (OR, 1.06; P = .001), liver disease (OR, 4.5), sepsis (OR, 2.3), antibiotic adherence to guidelines, and first antibiotic dose given < 6 h . The independent risk effect of current smokers remained when compared only with nonsmokers (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.3-12.6; P = .015) or to exsmokers (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.09-4.95; P = .02).CONCLUSIONS: Current smokers with pneumococcal CAP oft en develop severe sepsis and require hospitalization at a younger age, despite fewer comorbid conditions. Smoking increases the risk of 30-day mortality independently of tobacco-related comorbidity, age, and comorbid conditions. Current smokers should be actively targeted for preventive strategies. © 2014 American College of Chest Physicians. Source

Menendez R.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Torres A.,University of Barcelona | Reyes S.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Zalacain R.,Servicio de Neumologia | And 10 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2012

Processes of care and adherence to guidelines have been associated with improved survival in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In sepsis, bundles of processes of care have also increased survival. We aimed to audit compliance with guideline-recommended processes of care and its impact on outcome in hospitalised CAP patients with sepsis. We prospectively studied 4,137 patients hospitalised with CAP in 13 hospitals. The processes of care evaluated were adherence to antibiotic prescription guidelines, first dose within 6 h and oxygen assessment. Outcome measures were mortality and length of stay (LOS). Oxygen assessment was measured in 3,745 (90.5%) patients; 3,024 (73.1%) patients received antibiotics according to guidelines and 3,053 (73.8%) received antibiotics within 6 h. In CAP patients with sepsis, the strongest independent factor for survival was antibiotic adherence (OR 0.4). In severe sepsis, only compliance to antibiotic adherence plus first dose within 6 h was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.60), adjusted for fine prognostic scale and hospital. Antibiotic adherence was related to shorter hospital stay. In sepsis, antibiotic adherence is the strongest protective factor of care associated with survival and LOS. In severe sepsis, combined antibiotic adherence and first dose within 6 h may reduce mortality. Copyright © ERS 2012. Source

Menendez R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Torres A.,University of Barcelona | Reyes S.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Zalacain R.,Servicio de Neumologia | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Initial care has been associated with improved survival of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to investigate patient comorbidities and health status measured by the Charlson index and clinical signs at diagnosis associated with adherence to recommended processes of care in CAP. We studied 3844 patients hospitalized with CAP. The evaluated recommendations were antibiotic adherence to Spanish guidelines, first antibiotic dose <6 hours and oxygen assessment. Antibiotic adherence was 72.6%, first dose <6 h was 73.4% and oxygen assessment was 90.2%. Antibiotic adherence was negatively associated with a high Charlson score (Odds ratio [OR], 0.91), confusion (OR, 0.66) and tachycardia ≥100 bpm (OR, 0.77). Delayed first dose was significantly lower in those with tachycardia (OR, 0.75). Initial oxygen assessment was negatively associated with fever (OR, 0.61), whereas tachypnea ≥30 (OR, 1.58), tachycardia (OR, 1.39), age >65 (OR, 1.51) and COPD (OR, 1.80) were protective factors. The combination of antibiotic adherence and timing <6 hours was negatively associated with confusion (OR, 0.69) and a high Charlson score (OR, 0.92) adjusting for severity and hospital effect, whereas age was not an independent factor. Deficient health status and confusion, rather than age, are associated with lower compliance with antibiotic therapy recommendations and timing, thus identifying a subpopulation more prone to receiving lower quality care. © 2012 Menendez et al. Source

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