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Hervera A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Negrete R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Leanez S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Martin-Campos J.,Institute Of Recerca Of Lhospital Of La Sta Creu I Sant Pau | Pol O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Both δ-opioid receptor (DOPr) and cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2R) agonists attenuate neuropathic pain, but the precise mechanism implicated in these effects is not completely elucidated. We investigated whether nitric oxide synthesized by neuronal (NOS1) or inducible (NOS2) nitric-oxide synthases could modulate DOPr and/or CB2R antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects through the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) pathway activation and affect their expression during neuropathic pain. In wild-type (WT) mice at 21 days after chronic constriction of sciatic nerve, we evaluated the effects of [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]-enkephalin (DPDPE); (2-methyl-1-propyl-1H- indol-3-yl)-1-naphthalenylmethanone (JWH-015); and a NOS1 [N-[(4S)-4-amino-5- [(2-aminoethyl)amino]pentyl]-N′-nitroguanidine tris(trifluoroacetate) salt; NANT], NOS2 [L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine; L-NIL], L-guanylate cyclase [1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one; ODQ], or PKG [(Rp)-8-(para- chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate; Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPs] inhibitor administered alone or combined. Expression of DOPr and CB2R mRNA in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of naive and nerve-injured WT, NOS1-knockout (KO), and NOS2-KO mice, also was assessed. The subplantar administration of NANT, L-NIL, ODQ, or Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPs dose-dependently inhibited neuropathic pain and enhanced the local effects of DPDPE or JWH-015. Moreover, although the basal levels of DOPr and CB2R mRNA were similar between WT and NOS-KO animals, nerve injury only decreased (DOPr) or increased (CB2R) their expression in the dorsal root ganglia of WT and NOS2-KO mice, and not in NOS1-KO mice. Results suggest that inactivation of the nitric oxide-cGMP-PKG peripheral pathway triggered by NOS1 and NOS2 enhanced the peripheral actions of DOPr and CB2R agonists and that nitric oxide synthesized by NOS1 is implicated in the peripheral regulation of DOPr and CB2R gene transcription during neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Hervera A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Negrete R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Leanez S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Martin-Campos J.M.,Institute Of Recerca Of Lhospital Of La Sta Creu I Sant Pau | Pol O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Nitric oxide generated by neuronal (NOS1), inducible (NOS2) or endothelial (NOS3) nitric oxide synthases contributes to pain processing, but the exact role of NOS1 and NOS2 in the maintenance of chronic peripheral neuropathic pain as well as the possible compensatory changes in their expression in the spinal cord of wild type (WT) and NOS knockout (KO) mice at 21 days after total sciatic nerve ligation remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: The mechanical and thermal allodynia as well as thermal hyperalgesia induced by sciatic nerve injury was evaluated in WT, NOS1-KO and NOS2-KO mice from 1 to 21 days after surgery. The mRNA and protein levels of NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3 in the spinal cord of WT and KO mice, at 21 days after surgery, were also assessed. Sciatic nerve injury led to a neuropathic syndrome in WT mice, in contrast to the abolished mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as the decreased or suppressed thermal allodynia observed in NOS1-KO and NOS2-KO animals, respectively. Sciatic nerve injury also increases the spinal cord expression of NOS1 and NOS2 isoforms, but not of NOS3, in WT and NOS1-KO mice respectively. Moreover, the presence of NOS2 is required to increase the spinal cord expression of NOS1 whereas an increased NOS1 expression might avoid the up-regulation of NOS2 in the spinal cord of nerve injured WT mice. Conclusions/Significance: These data suggest that the increased spinal cord expression of NOS1, regulated by NOS2, might be responsible for the maintenance of chronic peripheral neuropathic pain in mice and propose these enzymes as interesting therapeutic targets for their treatment. © 2010 Hervera et al.


Hervera A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Negrete R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Leanez S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Martin-Campos J.M.,Institute Of Recerca Of Lhospital Of La Sta Creu I Sant Pau | Pol O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Molecular Pain | Year: 2011

Background: The local administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists attenuates neuropathic pain but the precise mechanism implicated in this effect is not completely elucidated. We investigated if nitric oxide synthesized by neuronal (NOS1) or inducible (NOS2) nitric oxide synthases could modulate the local antiallodynic effects of morphine through the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG)-ATP-sensitive K+(KATP) channels signaling pathway activation and affect the dorsal root ganglia MOR expression during neuropathic pain.Results: In wild type (WT) mice, the subplantar administration of morphine dose-dependently decreased the mechanical and thermal allodynia induced by the chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve (CCI), which effects were significantly diminished after their co-administration with different subanalgesic doses of a selective NOS1 (N-[(4S)-4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]pentyl]-N'-nitroguanidine tris(trifluoroacetate) salt; NANT), NOS2 (L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine; L-NIL), L-guanylate cyclase (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one; ODQ), PKG ((Rp)-8-(para-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate; Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPs) inhibitor or a KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide). The evaluation of the expression of MOR in the dorsal root ganglia from sham-operated and sciatic nerve-injured WT, NOS1 knockout (KO) and NOS2-KO mice at 21 days after surgery demonstrated that, although the basal mRNA and protein levels of MOR were similar between WT and both NOS-KO animals, nerve injury only decreased their expression in WT mice.Conclusions: These results suggest that the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-PKG-KATP signaling pathway activation participates in the local antiallodynic effects of morphine after sciatic nerve injury and that nitric oxide, synthesized by NOS1 and NOS2, is implicated in the dorsal root ganglia down-regulation of MOR during neuropathic pain. © 2011 Hervera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Negrete R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Hervera A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Leanez S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Martin-Campos J.M.,Institute Of Recerca Of Lhospital Of La Sta Creu I Sant Pau | Pol O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) agonists attenuate inflammatory pain but the precise mechanism implicated in these effects is not completely elucidated. We investigated if the peripheral nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG)-ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels signaling pathway triggered by the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) and modulated by opioids, participates in the local antinociceptive effects produced by a CB2R agonist (JWH-015) during chronic inflammatory pain. Methodology/Principal Findings: In wild type (WT) and NOS1 knockout (NOS1-KO) mice, at 10 days after the subplantar administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), we evaluated the antiallodynic (von Frey filaments) and antihyperalgesic (plantar test) effects produced by the subplantar administration of JWH-015 and the reversion of their effects by the local co-administration with CB2R (AM630), peripheral opioid receptor (naloxone methiodide, NX-ME) or CB1R (AM251) antagonists. Expression of CB2R and NOS1 as well as the antinociceptive effects produced by a high dose of JWH-015 combined with different doses of selective L-guanylate cyclase (ODQ) or PKG (Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPs) inhibitors or a KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide), were also assessed. Results show that the local administration of JWH-015 dose-dependently inhibited the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity induced by CFA which effects were completely reversed by the local co-administration of AM630 or NX-ME, but not AM251. Inflammatory pain increased the paw expression of CB2R and the dorsal root ganglia transcription of NOS1. Moreover, the antinociceptive effects of JWH-015 were absent in NOS1-KO mice and diminished by their co-administration with ODQ, Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPs or glibenclamide. Conclusions/Significance: These data indicate that the peripheral antinociceptive effects of JWH-015 during chronic inflammatory pain are mainly produced by the local activation of the nitric oxide-cGMP-PKG-KATP signaling pathway, triggered by NOS1 and mediated by endogenous opioids. These findings suggest that the activation of this pathway might be an interesting therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain with cannabinoids. © 2011 Negrete et al.

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