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Tel Aviv, Israel

Liberman G.,Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging | Liberman G.,Bar - Ilan University | Louzoun Y.,Bar - Ilan University | Aizenstein O.,Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Radiology | Year: 2013

Background: Current methods for evaluation of treatment response in glioblastoma are inaccurate, limited and time-consuming. This study aimed to develop a multi-modal MRI automatic classification method to improve accuracy and efficiency of treatment response assessment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB). Materials and methods: A modification of the k-Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) classification method was developed and applied to 59 longitudinal MR data sets of 13 patients with recurrent GB undergoing bevacizumab (anti-angiogenic) therapy. Changes in the enhancing tumor volume were assessed using the proposed method and compared with Macdonald's criteria and with manual volumetric measurements. The edema-like area was further subclassified into peri- and non-peri-tumoral edema, using both the kNN method and an unsupervised method, to monitor longitudinal changes. Results: Automatic classification using the modified kNN method was applicable in all scans, even when the tumors were infiltrative with unclear borders. The enhancing tumor volume obtained using the automatic method was highly correlated with manual measurements (N = 33, r = 0.96, p < 0.0001), while standard radiographic assessment based on Macdonald's criteria matched manual delineation and automatic results in only 68% of cases. A graded pattern of tumor infiltration within the edema-like area was revealed by both automatic methods, showing high agreement. All classification results were confirmed by a senior neuro-radiologist and validated using MR spectroscopy. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the important role of automatic tools based on a multi-modal view of the tissue in monitoring therapy response in patients with high grade gliomas specifically under anti-angiogenic therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Lutz S.,Blanchard Valley Regional Cancer Center | Korytko T.,Ohio State University | Nguyen J.,Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center | Khan L.,University of Toronto | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Journal | Year: 2010

Palliative radiotherapy has been prescribed since shortly after the discovery of the x-ray in the late 1800s, and it provides symptom relief that is successful, time-efficient, and cost-effective. Although palliative radiotherapy is worthwhile in a wide variety of clinical circumstances, there are situations where it is less worthwhile. We contrast the effective use of palliative radiotherapy with its ineffective use because of issues related to the patient, treatment, or health care system. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Laufer H.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Mazuz A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Nachmansson N.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Fellig Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Advanced MR imaging methods have an essential role in classification, grading, follow-up and therapeutic management in patients with brain tumors. With the introduction of new therapeutic options, the challenge for better tissue characterization and diagnosis increase, calling for new reliable non-invasive imaging methods. In the current study we evaluated the added value of a combined protocol of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging during hyperoxic challenge (termed hemodynamic response imaging (HRI)) in an orthotopic mouse model for glioblastoma under anti-angiogenic treatment with B20-4.1.1, an anti-VEGF antibody. In glioblastoma tumors, the elevated HRI indicated progressive angiogenesis as further confirmed by histology. In the current glioblastoma model, B20-treatment caused delayed tumor progression with no significant changes in HRI yet with slightly reduced tumor vascularity as indicated by histology. Furthermore, fewer apoptotic cells and higher proliferation index were detected in the B20-treated tumors compared to control-treated tumors. In conclusion, HRI provides an easy, safe and contrast agent free method for the assessment of the brain hemodynamic function, an additionally important clinical information. © 2014 Laufer et al. Source

Bae K.,Radiation Therapy Oncology Group | Bruner D.W.,University of Pennsylvania | Baek S.,University of Pennsylvania | Movsas B.,Ford Motor Company | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2011

The Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) instrument has been commonly used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) to assess mental status in brain cancer patients. Evaluating patient factors in relation to patterns of incomplete MMSE assessments can provide insight into predictors of missingness and optimal MMSE collection schedules in brain cancer clinical trials. This study examined eight RTOG brain cancer trials with ten treatment arms and 1,957 eligible patients. Patient data compliance patterns were categorized as: (1) evaluated at all time points (Complete), (2) not evaluated from a given time point or any subsequent time points but evaluated at all the previous time points (Monotone drop-out), (3) not evaluated at any time point (All missing), and (4) all other patterns (Mixed). Patient characteristics and reasons for missingness were summarized and compared among the missing pattern groups. Baseline MMSE scores and change scores after radiation therapy (RT) were compared between these groups, adjusting for differences in other characteristics. There were significant differences in frequency of missing patterns by age, treatment type, education, and Zubrod performance status (ZPS; P < 0.001). Ninety-two percent of patients were evaluated at least once: seven percent of patients were complete pattern, 49% were Monotone pattern, and 36% were mixed pattern. Patients who received RT only regimens were evaluated at a higher rate than patients who received RT + other treatments (49-64% vs. 27-45%). Institutional error and request to not be contacted were the most frequent known reasons for missing data, but most often, reasons for missing MMSE was unspecified. Differences in baseline mean MMSE scores by missing pattern (Complete, Monotone dropout, Mixed) were statistically significant (P < 0.001) but differences were small (<1.5 points) and significance did not persist after adjustment for age, ZPS, and other factors related to missingness. Post-RT change scores did not differ significantly by missing pattern. While baseline and change scores did not differ widely by missing pattern for available measurements, incomplete data was common and of unknown reason, and has potential to substantially bias conclusions. Higher compliance rates may be achievable by addressing institutional compliance with assessment schedules and patient refusal issues, and further exploration of how educational and health status barriers influence compliance with MMSE and other tools used in modern neurocognitive batteries. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

BACKGROUND: There is a trend towards hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (RT) in prostate cancer to apply high single doses in a few fractions. Using the Cyberknife® robotic system multiple non-coplanar fields are usually given with a treatment time of one hour or more. We planned to evaluate organ motion in this setting injecting a hydrogel spacer to protect the anterior rectal wall during treatment.METHODS: A 66 years old man with low risk prostate cancer was planned for robotic hypofractionated stereotactic RT. After implantation of fiducial markers and a hydrogel spacer a total dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions was given to the planning target volume (clinical target volume + 3 mm). After each beam the corresponding data reporting on the intra-fractional movement were pre-processed, the generated log-files extracted and the data analysed according to different directions: left -right (LR); anterior - posterior (AP); inferior -superior (IS). Clinical assessments were prospectively done before RT start, one week after the end of treatment as well as 1, 6 and 12 months afterwards. Symptoms were documented using Common Toxicity and Adverse Events Criteria 4.0.RESULTS: Tolerability of marker and hydrogel implantation was excellent. A total of 284 non-coplanar fields were used per fraction. The total treatment time for all fields per fraction lasted more than 60 minutes. The detected and corrected movements over all 5 fractions were in a range of +/- 4 mm in all directions (LR: mean 0,238 - SD 0,798; AP: mean 0,450 - SD 1,690; and IS: mean 0,908 - SD 1,518). V36Gy for the rectum was 0.062 ccm. After RT, grade 1-2 intestinal toxicity and grade 1 genitourinarytoxicity occurred, but resolved completely after 10 days. On 1-, 6- and 12-months follow-up the patient was free of any symptoms with only slight decrease of erectile function (grade 1). There was a continuous PSA decline.CONCLUSIONS: Prostate movement was relatively low (+/- 4 mm) even during fraction times of more than 60 minutes. The hydrogel spacer might serve as a kind of stabilisator for the prostate, but this should be analysed in a larger cohort of patients. Source

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