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Devos A.,Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety PRP Environmental SERIS | Voiseux C.,Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety PRP Environmental SERIS | Caplat C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Fievet B.,Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety PRP Environmental SERIS
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

The marine coastal environment is exposed to a mixture of environmental pollutants of anthropogenic origin, resulting in chronic low concentrations of contaminants. As a consequence, most coastal marine species are exposed to low doses of such pollutants during their entire life. Many marine species live for years in their natural environment, whereas they do not under laboratory exposure conditions. Using early stages of development in laboratory work allows animals to be chronically exposed from an early age over a reasonable experiment period. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of chronic exposure to zinc in spats of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), from metamorphosis up to 10 weeks. The authors investigated integrated biological endpoints that would account for the apparent general health of the animals as well as molecular markers showing more subtle effects that could potentially go unnoticed at a biologically integrated level. The authors measured in parallel both growth and the transcriptional level of target stress genes. Growth was monitored by image analysis of large samples to avoid high variability and ensure statistical robustness. A dose-response relationship was derived from growth data, yielding a median effective concentration (EC50) of 7.55μM. Stress genes selected on the basis of available RNA sequences in C. gigas included genes involved in chaperone proteins, oxidative stress, detoxification, and cell cycle regulation. Out of nine stress target genes, only metallothionein displayed overexpression in response to high levels of zinc. © 2012 SETAC.

Mottier A.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Seguin A.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Devos A.,Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety PRP Environmental SERIS | Pabic C.L.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 5 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used and can be measured in aquatic ecosystems, including coastal waters. The effect of glyphosate on non-target organisms is an issue of worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Yearling oysters were exposed to three concentrations of glyphosate (0.1, 1 and 100μgL-1) for 56days. Various endpoints were studied, from the individual level (e.g., gametogenesis and tissue alterations) to the molecular level (mRNA quantification), including biochemical endpoints such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities and malondialdehyde content. No mortality and growth occurred during the experiment, and individual biomarkers revealed only slight effects. The levels of gene expression significantly increased in oysters exposed to the highest glyphosate concentration (GST and metallothioneins) or to all concentrations (multi-xenobiotic resistance). These results suggested an activation of defence mechanisms at the molecular level. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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