Institute of Radiation Physics

Rue, Switzerland

Institute of Radiation Physics

Rue, Switzerland
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PubMed | Neurosurgery Service and Gamma Knife Center, University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics and Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine and
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) represent a common indication of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). While most studies focus on the long-term morbidity and adverse radiation effects (AREs), none describe the acute clinical AREs that might appear on a short-term basis. These types of events are investigated, and their incidence, type, and outcomes are reported in the present paper. METHODS The included patients were treated between July 2010 and March 2016, underwent at least 6 months of follow-up, and presented with a disabling symptom during the first 6 months after GKS that affected their quality of life. The timing of appearance, as well as the type of main symptom and outcome, were noted. The prescribed dose was 12 Gy at the margin. RESULTS Thirty-five (22%) of 159 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria had acute clinical AREs. The mean followup period was 30 months (range 6-49.2 months). The mean time of appearance was 37.9 days (median 31 days; range 3-110 days). In patients with de novo symptoms, the more frequent symptoms were vertigo (n = 4; 11.4%) and gait disturbance (n = 3; 8.6%). The exacerbation of a preexisting symptom was more frequently related to hearing loss (n = 10; 28.6%), followed by gait disturbance (n = 7; 20%) and vertigo (n = 3, 8.6%). In the univariate logistic regression analysis, the following factors were statistically significant: age (p = 0.002; odds ratio [OR] 0.96), hearing at baseline by Gardner-Robertson (GR) class (p = 0.006; OR 0.21), pure tone average at baseline (p = 0.006; OR 0.97), and Koos grade at baseline (with Koos Grade I used as a reference) (for Koos Grade II, OR 0.17 and p = 0.002; for Koos Grade III, OR 0.42 and p = 0.05). The following were not statistically significant but showed a tendency toward significance: the number of isocenters (p = 0.06; OR 0.94) and the maximal dose received by the cochlea (p = 0.07; OR 0.74). Fractional polynomial regression analysis showed a nonlinear relationship between the outcome and the radiation dose rate (minimum reached at a cutoff of 2.5 Gy/minute) and the maximal vestibular dose (maximum reached at a cutoff of 8 Gy), but the small sample size precludes a detailed analysis of the former. The clinical acute AREs disappeared in 32 (91.4%) patients during the first 6 months after appearance. Permanent and somewhat disabling morbidity was found in 3 cases (1.9% from the whole series): 1 each with complete hearing loss (GR Class I before and V after), hemifacial spasm (persistent but alleviated), and dysgeusia. CONCLUSIONS Acute effects after radiosurgery for VS are not rare. They concern predominantly de novo vertigo and gait disturbance and the exacerbation of preexistent hearing loss. In de novo vestibular symptoms, a vestibular dose of more than 8 Gy is thought to play a role. In most cases, none of these effects are permanent, and they will ultimately improve or disappear with steroid therapy. Permanent AREs remain very rare.


PubMed | University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institute of Radiation Physics and Paris West University Nanterre La Défense
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

As opposed to the standard detective quantum efficiency (DQE), effective DQE (eDQE) is a figure of merit that allows comparing the performances of imaging systems in the presence of scatter rejection devices. The geometry of the EOS slot-scanning system is such that the detector is self-collimated and rejects scattered radiation. In this study, the EOS system was characterised using the eDQE in imaging conditions similar to those used in clinical practice: with phantoms of different widths placed in the X-ray beam, for various incident air kerma and tube voltages corresponding to the phantom thickness. Scatter fractions in EOS images were extremely low, around 2 % for all configurations. Maximum eDQE values spanned 9-14.8 % for a large range of air kerma at the detector plane from 0.01 to 1.34 Gy. These figures were obtained with non-optimised EOS setting but still over-performed most of the maximum eDQEs recently assessed for various computed radiology and digital radiology systems with antiscatter grids.


Amiot M.N.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Chiste V.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Fitzgerald R.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Juget F.,Institute of Radiation Physics | And 4 more authors.
Metrologia | Year: 2015

Pressurized re-entrant (or 4π) ionization chambers (ICs) connected to current-measuring electronics are used for activity measurements of photon emitting radionuclides and some beta emitters in the fields of metrology and nuclear medicine. As a secondary method, these instruments need to be calibrated with appropriate activity standards from primary or direct standardization. The use of these instruments over 50 years has been well described in numerous publications, such as the Monographie BIPM-4 and the special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology (Ratel 2007 Metrologia 44 S7-16, Schrader1997 Activity Measurements With Ionization Chambers (Monographie BIPM-4) Schrader 2007 Metrologia 44 S53-66, Cox et al 2007 Measurement Modelling of the International Reference System (SIR) for Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides (Monographie BIPM-7)). The present work describes the principles of activity measurements, calibrations, and impurity corrections using pressurized ionization chambers in the first part and the uncertainty analysis illustrated with example uncertainty budgets from routine source-calibration as well as from an international reference system (SIR) measurement in the second part. © 2015 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.


Juget F.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Bailat C.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Bochud F.,Institute of Radiation Physics
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2014

We report the performances of a double focusing magnetic beta spectrometer. The energy resolution was measured using conversion peaks of Cs-137 and Ba-133 at 0.73% for 624. keV, and 1.33% for 124. keV. The counting efficiency as a function of the energy was estimated using a P-32 source and was used to correct the measured spectra of Cs-137. The result was compared with the theoretical spectrum and we found a good agreement. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Fitzgerald R.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Bailat C.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Bobin C.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Keightley J.D.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom
Metrologia | Year: 2015

The 4πβ-γ coincidence counting method and its close relatives are widely used for the primary standardization of radioactivity. Both the general formalism and specific implementation of these methods have been well-documented. In particular, previous papers contain the extrapolation equations used for various decay schemes, methods for determining model parameters and, in some cases, tabulated uncertainty budgets. Two things often lacking from experimental reports are both the rationale for estimating uncertainties in a specific way and the details of exactly how a specific component of uncertainty was estimated. Furthermore, correlations among the components of uncertainty are rarely mentioned. To fill in these gaps, the present article shares the best-practices from a few practitioners of this craft. We explain and demonstrate with examples of how these approaches can be used to estimate the uncertainty of the reported massic activity. We describe uncertainties due to measurement variability, extrapolation functions, dead-time and resolving-time effects, gravimetric links, and nuclear and atomic data. Most importantly, a thorough understanding of the measurement system and its response to the decay under study can be used to derive a robust estimate of the measurement uncertainty. © 2015 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd.


Samara E.T.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Aroua A.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Bochud F.O.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Bize P.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Verdun F.R.,Institute of Radiation Physics
Health Physics | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation exposure of the Swiss population to interventional procedures. A nationwide survey was conducted in Switzerland. The annual effective dose per capita due to interventional procedures was found to be 0.14 mSv, corresponding to 12% of the total dose. Coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions were found to be the most frequent and the most irradiating interventional procedures, accounting for 52% of the total examination frequency and 64% of the dose delivered to the population. Switzerland stands at the same level as other countries in terms of effective dose per capita due to interventional radiology. Copyright © 2012 Health Physics Society.


Bailat C.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Buchillier T.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Baechler S.,Institute of Radiation Physics | Bochud F.,Institute of Radiation Physics
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2011

In Switzerland, individuals exposed to the risk of activity intake are required to perform regular monitoring. Monitoring consists in a screening measurement and is meant to be performed using commonly available laboratory instruments. More particularly, iodine intake is measured using a surface contamination monitor. The goal of the present paper is to report the calibration method developed for thyroid screening instruments. It consists of measuring the instrument response to a known activity located in the thyroid gland of a standard neck phantom. One issue of this procedure remains that the iodine radioisotopes have a short half-life. Therefore, the adequacy and limitations to simulate the short-lived radionuclides with so-called mock radionuclides of longer half-life were also evaluated. In light of the results, it has been decided to use only the appropriate iodine sources to perform the calibration. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Institute of Radiation Physics
Type: | Journal: Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine | Year: 2014

We report the performances of a double focusing magnetic beta spectrometer. The energy resolution was measured using conversion peaks of Cs-137 and Ba-133 at 0.73% for 624 keV, and 1.33% for 124 keV. The counting efficiency as a function of the energy was estimated using a P-32 source and was used to correct the measured spectra of Cs-137. The result was compared with the theoretical spectrum and we found a good agreement.


PubMed | Institute of Radiation Physics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

Evaluating image quality by using receiver operating characteristic studies is time consuming and difficult to implement. This work assesses a new iterative algorithm using a channelised Hotelling observer (CHO). For this purpose, an anthropomorphic abdomen phantom with spheres of various sizes and contrasts was scanned at 3 volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) levels on a GE Revolution CT. Images were reconstructed using the iterative reconstruction method adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-V (ASIR-V) at ASIR-V 0, 50 and 70 % and assessed by applying a CHO with dense difference of Gaussian and internal noise. Both CHO and human observers (HO) were compared based on a four-alternative forced-choice experiment, using the percentage correct as a figure of merit. The results showed accordance between CHO and HO. Moreover, an improvement in the low-contrast detection was observed when switching from ASIR-V 0 to 50 %. The results underpin the finding that ASIR-V allows dose reduction.


PubMed | Institute of Radiation Physics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

Patient dose optimisation in computed tomography (CT) should be done using clinically relevant tasks when dealing with image quality assessments. In the present work, low-contrast detectability for an average patient morphology was assessed on 56 CT units, using a model observer applied on images acquired with two specific protocols of an anthropomorphic phantom containing spheres. Images were assessed using the channelised Hotelling observer (CHO) with dense difference of Gaussian channels. The results were computed by performing receiver operating characteristics analysis (ROC) and using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) as a figure of merit. The results showed a small disparity at a volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) of 15 mGy depending on the CT units for the chosen image quality criterion. For 8-mm targets, AUCs were 0.999 0.018 at 20 Hounsfield units (HU) and 0.927 0.054 at 10 HU. For 5-mm targets, AUCs were 0.947 0.059 and 0.702 0.068 at 20 and 10 HU, respectively. The robustness of the CHO opens the way for CT protocol benchmarking and optimisation processes.

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