Institute of Radiation Hygiene

Saint Petersburg, Russia

Institute of Radiation Hygiene

Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Ramzaev V.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Barkovsky A.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Goncharova Y.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Gromov A.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has resulted in radioactive contamination of environmental media and food in the Far East of Russia, particularly in the Sakhalin Region. To obtain the knowledge about the 134Cs and 137Cs spatial distribution in the Sakhalin Region, soil samples were collected at 31 representative grassland sites on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan islands (43.80°-46.40° N and 142.73°-146.84° E) in the middle of May and around the end of September to early October 2011. In the autumn, vegetation samples (mixed grass/forb crop and bamboo, Sasa sp.) were collected together with soil samples. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on dry weight) of 134Cs and 137Cs in soil were 30 Bq kg-1 and 210 Bq kg-1, respectively. Within soil profile, 134Cs activity concentrations declined rapidly with depth. Although for both sampling occasions (in the spring and autumn) the radionuclide was completely retained in the upper 3-4 cm of soil, a deeper penetration of the contaminant into the ground was observed in the autumn. In contrast with 134Cs, activity concentrations of 137Cs demonstrated a broad range of the vertical distribution in soil; at most sites, the radionuclide was found down to a depth of 20 cm. This resulted from interfering the aged pre-accidental 137Cs and the new Fukushima-borne 137Cs. To calculate contribution of these sources to the inventory of 137Cs, the 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio of 1:1 in Fukushima fallout (the reference date 15 March 2011) was used. The maximum deposition density of Fukushima-derived 137Cs was found on Shikotan and Kunashir Islands with average density of 0.124 ± 0.018 kBq m-2 and 0.086 ± 0.026 kBq m-2, respectively. Sakhalin Island was less contaminated by Fukushima-derived 137Cs of 0.021 ± 0.018 kBq m-2. For the south of Sakhalin Island, the reference inventory of pre-Fukushima 137Cs was calculated as 1.93 ± 0.25 kBq m-2 (reference date 15 March 2011). For Shikotan and Kunashir Islands, the pre-Fukushima reference levels of 137Cs ground contamination appeared to be higher: on average, 2.81 ± 0.35 kBq m-2. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on wet weight) of 134Cs and 137Cs in the vegetation were 5 Bq kg-1 and 18 Bq kg-1, respectively. Soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factors, Tags, for 134Cs were more than an order of magnitude higher than those for 137Cs. For the above-ground biomass density of 1 kg per m2 (wet weight), plant contamination may contribute approximately 2% and 0.1% to the ground deposition of Fukushima-derived and pre-accidental 137Cs, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ramzaev V.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Repin V.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Medvedev A.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Khramtsov E.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2011

In the summer of 2009, we performed a field survey of the " Taiga" peaceful underground nuclear explosion site, the Perm region, Russia (61.30° N, 56.60° E). The explosion was carried out by the USSR in 1971. This paper provides an extended summary of the available published data on the " Taiga" experiment. A detailed description of the site is illustrated by original aerial and ground-level photos. A large artificial lake (700 m long and 350 m wide) currently occupies the central area of the experimental site. The ground lip surrounding the lake is covered by a newly grown mixed forest. In situ measurements, performed in August 2009, revealed elevated levels of the γ-ray dose rate in air on the banks of the lake " Taiga" Two hot spots were detected on the eastern bank of the lake. The excess of the γ-ray radiation is attributable to the man-made radionuclides 60Co and 137Cs. The current external γ-ray dose rate to a human from the contaminations associated with the " Taiga" experiment was between 9 and 70 μSv per week. Periodic monitoring the site is recommended. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ramzaev V.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Repin V.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Medvedev A.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Khramtsov E.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2012

Samples of soil and epigeic lichens were collected from the " Taiga" peaceful nuclear explosion site (61.30°N 56.60°E, the Perm region, Russia) in 2009 and analyzed using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. For soil samples obtained at six different plots, two products of fission ( 137Cs and 155Eu), five products of neutron activation ( 60Co, 94Nb, 152Eu, 154Eu, 207Bi) and 241Am have been identified and quantified. The maximal activity concentrations of 60Co, 137Cs, and 241Am for the soils samples were measured as 1650, 7100, and 6800 Bq kg -1 (d.w.), respectively. The deposit of 137Cs for the top 20 cm of soil on the tested plots at the " Taiga" site ranged from 30 to 1020 kBq m -2; the maximal value greatly (by almost 3 orders of magnitude) exceeded the regional background (from global fallout) level of 1.4 kBq m -2. 137Cs contributes approximately 57% of the total ground inventory of the man-made γ-ray emitters for the six plots tested at the " Taiga" site. The other major radionuclides - 241Am and 60Co, constitute around 40%. Such radionuclides as 60Co, 137Cs, 241Am, and 207Bi have also been determined for the epigeic lichens (genera Cladonia) that colonized certain areas at the ground lip produced by the " Taiga" explosion. Maximal activity concentrations (up to 80 Bq kg -1 for 60Co, 580 Bq kg -1 for 137Cs, 200 Bq kg -1 for 241Am, and 5 Bq kg -1 for 207Bi; all are given in terms of d.w.) have been detected for the lower dead section of the organisms. The air kerma rates associated with the anthropogenic sources of gamma radiation have been calculated using the data obtained from the laboratory analysis. For the six plots tested, the kerma rates ranged from 50 to 1200 nGy h -1; on average, 51% of the dose can be attributed to 137Cs and 45% to 60Co. These estimates agree reasonably well with the results of the in situ measurements made during our field survey of the " Taiga" site in August 2009. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Balonov M.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2013

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested. New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Balonov M.I.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene | Shrimpton P.C.,Public Health England
Annals of the ICRP | Year: 2012

The radiation risks from a range of medical x-ray examinations (radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography) were assessed as a function of the age and sex of the patient using risk models described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) and UNSCEAR (2006, Annex A). Such estimates of risk based on typical organ doses were compared with those derived from effective doses using the International Commission on Radiological Protection's nominal risk coefficients. Methodologically similar but not identical dose and risk calculations were performed independently at the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (Russia) and the Health Protection Agency (UK), and led to similar conclusions. The radiogenic risk of stochastic health effects following various x-ray procedures varied significantly with the patient's age and sex, but to differing degrees depending on which body organs were irradiated. In general, the risks of radiation-induced stochastic health effects in children are estimated to be higher (by a factor of ≤4) than in adults, and risks in senior patients are lower by a factor of ≥10 relative to younger people. If risks are assessed on the basis of effective dose, they are underestimated for children of both sexes by a factor of ≤4. This approach overestimates risks by a factor of ≤3 for adults and about an order of magnitude for senior patients. The significant sex and age dependence of radiogenic risk for different cancer types is an important consideration for radiologists when planning x-ray examinations. Whereas effective dose was not intended to provide a measure of risk associated with such examinations, it may be sufficient to make simple adjustments to the nominal risk per unit effective dose to account for age and sex differences. © 2012 .


PubMed | International Atomic Energy Agency, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Institute of Radiation Hygiene and UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology
Type: | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

Extensive remediation was conducted on contaminated landscapes after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. A comparison is made of a range of different features relevant to each accident including the characteristics of the contamination and the landscapes affected, the radiological criteria, the designation of areas to be remediated and the remediation measures adopted.


Balonov M.I.,Institute of Radiation Hygiene
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2012

The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies - UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800 000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan. © IOP 2012 Publishing Ltd.


PubMed | Institute of Radiation Hygiene
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental radioactivity | Year: 2013

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has resulted in radioactive contamination of environmental media and food in the Far East of Russia, particularly in the Sakhalin Region. To obtain the knowledge about the (134)Cs and (137)Cs spatial distribution in the Sakhalin Region, soil samples were collected at 31 representative grassland sites on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan islands (43.80-46.40 N and 142.73-146.84 E) in the middle of May and around the end of September to early October 2011. In the autumn, vegetation samples (mixed grass/forb crop and bamboo, Sasa sp.) were collected together with soil samples. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on dry weight) of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil were 30Bqkg(-1) and 210Bqkg(-1), respectively. Within soil profile, (134)Cs activity concentrations declined rapidly with depth. Although for both sampling occasions (in the spring and autumn) the radionuclide was completely retained in the upper 3-4cm of soil, a deeper penetration of the contaminant into the ground was observed in the autumn. In contrast with (134)Cs, activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated a broad range of the vertical distribution in soil; at most sites, the radionuclide was found down to a depth of 20cm. This resulted from interfering the aged pre-accidental (137)Cs and the new Fukushima-borne (137)Cs. To calculate contribution of these sources to the inventory of (137)Cs, the (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio of 1:1 in Fukushima fallout (the reference date 15 March 2011) was used. The maximum deposition density of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found on Shikotan and Kunashir Islands with average density of 0.1240.018kBqm(-2) and 0.0860.026kBqm(-2), respectively. Sakhalin Island was less contaminated by Fukushima-derived (137)Cs of 0.0210.018kBqm(-2). For the south of Sakhalin Island, the reference inventory of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs was calculated as 1.930.25kBqm(-2) (reference date 15 March 2011). For Shikotan and Kunashir Islands, the pre-Fukushima reference levels of (137)Cs ground contamination appeared to be higher: on average, 2.810.35kBqm(-2). Maximum measured activity concentrations (on wet weight) of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the vegetation were 5Bqkg(-1) and 18Bqkg(-1), respectively. Soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factors, T(ag)s, for (134)Cs were more than an order of magnitude higher than those for (137)Cs. For the above-ground biomass density of 1kg per m(2) (wet weight), plant contamination may contribute approximately 2% and 0.1% to the ground deposition of Fukushima-derived and pre-accidental (137)Cs, respectively.


PubMed | Institute of Radiation Hygiene
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of radiological protection : official journal of the Society for Radiological Protection | Year: 2012

The health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident continue to attract the attention of experts, decision-makers and the general public, and now these consequences have been given added relevance by the similar accident in 2011 at the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan. Expert analysis of radiation levels and effects has been conducted by international bodies--UNSCEAR in 2008 and the Chernobyl Forum during 2003-5. At the same time, three Russian and Belarusian scientists, Yablokov, Nesterenko and Nesterenko (2009 Chernobyl. Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences)) published both in Russian and English a substantial review of the consequences of Chernobyl based mostly on Russian-language papers. In this book, they suggested a departure from analytical epidemiological studies in favour of ecological ones. This erroneous approach resulted in the overestimation of the number of accident victims by more than 800000 deaths during 1987-2004. This paper investigates the mistakes in methodology made by Yablokov et al and concludes that these errors led to a clear exaggeration of radiation-induced health effects. Should similar mistakes be made following the 2011 accident at Fukushima-1 NPP this could lead quite unnecessarily to a panic reaction by the public about possible health effects and to erroneous decisions by the authorities in Japan.


PubMed | Institute of Radiation Hygiene
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental radioactivity | Year: 2012

Samples of soil and epigeic lichens were collected from the Taiga peaceful nuclear explosion site (61.30N 56.60E, the Perm region, Russia) in 2009 and analyzed using high resolution -ray spectrometry. For soil samples obtained at six different plots, two products of fission ((137)Cs and (155)Eu), five products of neutron activation ((60)Co, (94)Nb, (152)Eu, (154)Eu, (207)Bi) and (241)Am have been identified and quantified. The maximal activity concentrations of (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am for the soils samples were measured as 1650, 7100, and 6800Bqkg(-1) (d.w.), respectively. The deposit of (137)Cs for the top 20cm of soil on the tested plots at the Taiga site ranged from 30 to 1020kBqm(-2); the maximal value greatly (by almost 3 orders of magnitude) exceeded the regional background (from global fallout) level of 1.4kBqm(-2). (137)Cs contributes approximately 57% of the total ground inventory of the man-made -ray emitters for the six plots tested at the Taiga site. The other major radionuclides -(241)Am and (60)Co, constitute around 40%. Such radionuclides as (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am, and (207)Bi have also been determined for the epigeic lichens (genera Cladonia) that colonized certain areas at the ground lip produced by the Taiga explosion. Maximal activity concentrations (up to 80Bqkg(-1) for (60)Co, 580Bqkg(-1) for (137)Cs, 200Bqkg(-1) for (241)Am, and 5Bqkg(-1) for (207)Bi; all are given in terms of d.w.) have been detected for the lower dead section of the organisms. The air kerma rates associated with the anthropogenic sources of gamma radiation have been calculated using the data obtained from the laboratory analysis. For the six plots tested, the kerma rates ranged from 50 to 1200nGyh(-1); on average, 51% of the dose can be attributed to (137)Cs and 45% to (60)Co. These estimates agree reasonably well with the results of the in situ measurements made during our field survey of the Taiga site in August 2009.

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