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Ivic-Kolevska S.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia | Miljkovic-Selimovic B.,Institute for Public Health | Miljkovic-Selimovic B.,University of Niš | Kocic B.,Institute for Public Health | Kocic B.,University of Niš
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to determine the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken meat samples at frozen temperatures and given length of incubation and to determine the impact of aerobic bacteria on the survival of C. jejuni. The chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni NCTC 11351 suspensions and stored in bags at temperatures of -20°C and -70°C. The mean value of C. jejuni from meat samples decreased from 7.52 log10 CFU/g after 30 minutes of incubation at ambient temperature, to 3.87 log10 CFU/g on the eighth week of incubation at -20°C, and to 3.78 log10 CFU/g at incubation at -70°C after the same incubation period. Both freezing temperatures, -20°C and -70°C, decreased the number of campylobacters. The presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria did not influence the survival of C. jejuni in chicken meet samples. Keeping poultry meat at freezing temperatures is important for the reduction of C. jejuni, which has a strong influence on the prevention of occurrence of campylobacteriosis in humans. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.


Dimitrovski D.,Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje | Velickova E.,Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje | Dimitrovska M.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia | Langerholc T.,University of Maribor | Winkelhausen E.,Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 1010 cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6 g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50 % v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80 % of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60 % were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4–7 °C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.70 ± 0.50 days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.7 ± 6.4 days of the mixture containing 30 % blueberry juice. © 2015, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


Ameti A.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia | Slavkovska J.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia | Starkoska K.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia | Arsova-Sarafinovska Z.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia
Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012

A simple isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for determination of oseltamivir active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in bulk drug and pharmaceuticals. The separation was achieved on a Purospher STAR® RP - 18e column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol - 0.02 mol l-1 phosphate buffer, pH 5, 50:50 (V/V). Chromatographic results demonstrated the specificity of the method for determination of oseltamivir in presence of degradation products generated in studies of forced decomposition. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for oseltamivir phosphate were 0.0162 μg ml-1 and 0.0491 μg ml-1, respectively. The advantages of this method include simple sample treatment, short elution time (less than 6 min) and short analysis time (less than 10 min). Furthermore, using methanol instead of acetonitrile in a mobile phase composition considerably reduces the laboratory expenses, still retaining adequate sensitivity for routine analysis as well as for evaluation of authenticity of Tamiflu® products.


Spiroski I.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia | Spiroski I.,Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje | Dimitrovska Z.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia | Gjorgjev D.,Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia | And 6 more authors.
Central European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (x2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO'S AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p=0.001) and height (p=0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (≥-2SD and <-1SD; ≥-1SD and median; >+1SD and ≤+2SD; >+2SD and ≤+3SD). Except for limited intervals of the SD at BMI-for-age index, there were no significant differences in anthropometric parameters between Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.


PubMed | University of Maribor, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje and Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50%v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80% of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60% were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4-7C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.700.50days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.76.4days of the mixture containing 30% blueberry juice.


PubMed | Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia, Oslo University College, University of Ljubljana, Institute for Food Research and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries.


PubMed | Institute of Political and Intercultural Studies, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia and University of Macedonia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Materia socio-medica | Year: 2014

To examine the existing situation, barriers and consequences of the intercultural communication in health institutions and to offer training models for strengthening and improving communication skills of health professionals in the Republic of Macedonia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the relationship between patients and health professionals. A total of 813 health professionals (302 physicians and 511 other medical staff) from different healthcare institutions, and 1016 patients participated in cross-sectional survey performed in autumn 2010.The research has showed that each third examined patient thought that his/her physician or the other medical personnel had no understanding for his/her emotions and gave no answer to all of his/her questions. From the other side, 60% of the physicians declare that they have a good communication with patients speaking other language than their mother tongue. Only 60% of physicians said that they know good the culture of their patient and 52% of the other medical staff said that they adjusted the treatment to the patient culture (religion, attitudes, language, life style).There are some gaps in current provision of health care practice in an aspect of effective interactions and communication skills of health professionals to meet patient needs in a multicultural and multilingual setting. A training model is proposed for strengthening communication skills of health professionals.


PubMed | Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Central European journal of public health | Year: 2011

Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHOs AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and < -1SD; > or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and < or = +2SD; between Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.


PubMed | Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medicinski glasnik : official publication of the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina | Year: 2012

Development of antibiotic resistance represents a major global and Macedonian public health problem. To assess the opinion and knowledge of the citizens of Macedonia about the usage of antibiotics, voluntary and anonymous survey was realized. A total of 239 persons (age 10-67 years) were interviewed. Following information was obtained: 73.64% get antibiotics with a medical prescription; and 87.03% receiving the antibiotic on time, dosage and prescribed duration. When asked about knowledge about antibiotics, 38% of the interviewed persons gave the right answer, 43.1% of respondents made false statements that antibiotics are effective against viral infections and 25.52% did not express any opinion.


PubMed | Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Prilozi (Makedonska akademija na naukite i umetnostite. Oddelenie za medicinski nauki) | Year: 2014

To present and compare different Nucleic Acid Testing assays used for laboratory diagnosis of influenza virus infection in our country.Respiratory samples used were nose and throat swabs. The RNA extraction was performed with a QIAamp viral RNA kit. During the season 20092010 the first 25 samples were tested with: conventional gel-based RT-PCR and CDC rtRT-PCR using published specific matrix and HA gene primers and probes for influenza virus typing and subtyping.Of 25 samples tested with conventional RT-PCR 7(28%) were positive for influenza A, but negative for A/H1seasonal and A/H3. Retested with rtRT-PCR 9(36%) were positive for influenza A, 8(32%) were positive for /H1pdm and 1(4%) was /H3. Two samples positive with rtRT-PCR for influenza A were negative with RT-PCR. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR in comparison with rtRT-PCR is 100% and the specificity is 88.89%. Positive predictive value for RT-PCR is 77.78%, and negative predictive value is 100%. RT-PCR is a four-step and rtRT-PCR a one-step procedure. The turn-around time of RT-PCR is 6 hours and for rtRT-PCR it is 2 hours.For surveillance purposes nose and throat swabs are the more easy and practical to collect. It was proved that RT-PCR is too laborious, multi-step and time-consuming. The sensitivity of both assays is equal. The specificity of rtRT-PCR is higher. NAT assays for detection of influenza viruses have become an integral component of the surveillance programme in our country. They provide a fast, accurate and sensitive detection of influenza.

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