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Cvetkovic A.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade | Jovasevic-Stojanovic M.,University of Belgrade | Adjanski-Spasic L.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade | Matic-Besarabic S.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly | Year: 2010

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health Institute of Belgrade and funded by Belgrade's Municipality. Air samples for analysis of BaP in suspended particles have been collected (as 24 h sample once per month) at selected monitoring sites within the municipal air quality monitoring network. At the beginning, according to National Regulation, all samples were taken as total suspended particles (TSP). Since mid-2008, the procedure of sampling methodology was harmonized with EU requirements and solid fraction PM10 has been collected and analyzed using GC/MS. In this study, we have analyzed results of TSP collected between 2005 and 2008. Looking through the results obtained during the period of a whole year, it can be noticed that concentrations of BaP were much higher during winter season at almost all measuring sites.

Petkovic S.,University of Belgrade | Gregorica E.,University of Belgrade | Slepcevicb V.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade | Blagojevica S.,University of Belgrade | And 5 more authors.
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2011

In suburban Belgrade, there are some 200 local water supply systems which are not connected to either the Belgrade Water Supply System or to supply systems operated by municipal utilities. The small systems in Belgrade suburbs are either operated by local municipality (local government) or even by the group of local citizens who have neither technical capability nor financial resources to do it properly. Roughly 200,000 of Belgrade's inhabitants obtain their drinking water from these water supply systems. The water quality delivered by these local water supply systems is often compromised in terms of microbiological, physical and/or chemical compliance with drinking water standards in addition to the general lack of strategy on water safety plans and risk assessment. WHO Guidelines on water quality standards as well as the recommendations on safety plans and whole risk assessment are strictly respected in the main (central) Water Supply System in Belgrade. Most frequently, elevated concentrations of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and iron lead to lack of chemical compliance, while elevated counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the presence of bacteria indicative of faecal pollution tend to be behind microbiological lack of compliance with drinking water standards. In most cases, failure to meet drinking water standards can be attributed to groundwater pollution. No sewer system exists in these areas, and wastewater from septic tanks, in practice infiltration wells, is in direct contact with groundwater. Of a total of 72 laboratory-tested drinking water samples, 51.3% failed to meet physical and/or chemical standards, and 73.6% failed to meet microbiological standards. Groundwater pollution can only be prevented if wastewater disposal system is provided for all households and all suburban residential areas which obtain their water supply from local water supply systems. Some possible mitigation measures have been indicated. In the interim period, water must be disinfected continually, and the feasibility of ozonation or UV irradiation, in addition to chlorination, should be assessed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Relic T.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade | Ilic N.,Public Health Institute of Kragujevac | Kostic G.,Clinical Center Kragujevac | Jovanovic D.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade | And 2 more authors.
Vojnosanitetski Pregled | Year: 2016

Background/Aim. Bronchiolitis in early childhood caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is considered to be important risk factor of the recurrent wheezing and asthma development. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of RSV infection and atopy in children up to two years of age and to determine their correlation with bronchial hyperreactivity. Methods. The study included 175 children aged 5–24 months. The presence of RSV infection was identified by serum levels of IgA and IgG determined by ELISA. Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) has been defined as the existence of chronic bronchial disease and/or three or more previous suspected diagnosis of acute bronchial disease. Atopy was confirmed by detection of the specific serum IgE using quantitative multitest Phadiatop infant (cut off ≥ 0.35 kUA/L). Results. The children with atopy were more frequently infected with RSV (43.3%) than those without atopy (22.8%; p = 0.02). The higher frequency of RSV infection was found in children with BHR in comparison with those without it but only in the group who also had atopy (77.8% vs 28.6%, p = 0.018). In the female children, BHR and RSV infection were associated in 62.5% of cases, regardless the atopy. In the male children with atopy, RSV infection was associated with BHR in 83.3% of the cases, while in those without atopy, RSV infection with BHR was found in only 17.4% of the cases. Conclusion. Children up to two years of age with atopy are more frequently infected with RSV (43.3%) than non-atopic children. Every third child with atopy develops BHR and 77.8% of them also have RSV infection. Atopic children are at higher risk for development of BHR when infected with RSV also. © 2016, Institut za Vojnomedicinske Naucne Informacije/Documentaciju. All rights reserved.

Zivkovic M.,Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Jovasevic-Stojanovic M.,Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Cvetkovic A.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade | Lazovic I.,Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly | Year: 2015

This study investigated seasonal variation of PAHs and their partition between gas and particulate-bounded phases in indoor and outdoor air in 4 schools in Serbia located at different locations. The sampling campaigns were conducted during one workweek at each school successively. Campaigns were conducted in schools during heating and non-heating seasons in December 2011 and June 2012. Seasonal variations of gas and particle-bounded PAHs concentrations were observed with higher levels during heating season. The highest total PAH values were associated with the gas phase in both sampling periods. The total PAHs concentration at indoor and at the outdoor sites, during heating season, ranged from 88.45 to 447.72 ng/m3 and 201.69 to 1017.15 ng/m3, respectively. During non-heating season, the total PAHs concentration ranged from 36.91 to 271.57 ng/m3 in indoor environment and 27.00 to 132.32 ng/m3 in outdoor environment. Most of the I/O ratios were less than 1, which indicated that the indoor PAHs were mostly from outdoor sources. The use of diagnostic ratio showed that traffic emission and coal combustion are the major sources of PAHs. Only the diagnostic ratios for the school located near the industrial area showed significant deviation compared to other schools. © 2015, CI and CEQ. All Rights Reserved.

Cvetkovic A.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade | Jovasevic-Stojanovic M.,Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Matic-Besarabic S.,Public Health Institute of Belgrade | Markovic D.A.,Belgrade | Bartonova A.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly | Year: 2015

Exposure to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with adverse health problems and specifically with carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. The major PAH sources outdoors are: stationary sources from industry(power plants, incineration, local industry) and domestic sources as the residential heating, burning and pyrolysis of coal, oil, gas, garbage, wood, or other organic substances mobile emissions (diesel and petrol engines), biomass burning and agricultural activities (e.g., open burning of brushwood, straw, stubble). The aim of this study was to assess potential differences in particle-bound PAH levels and source contribution between summer 2009 and 2012 sampling campaigns done at the same location in Belgrade urban area. The sampling location is considered representative for a mix of residential, business and industrial areas of New Belgrade, an urban area that has been under rapid development. The average concentrations of PM10 are slightly higher in summer 2012 than in 2009. PM-bound PAH follow the same trend as the PM indicating an increasing strength of PAH sources relative to all PM sources. Appling positive matrix factorization, three potential sources of PAHs in the atmosphere were distinguished: 1) stationary sources, 2) traffic (diesel and gasoline vehicle exhaust) and 3) local open burning sources (OBS). The analysis confirmed higher contribution of traffic and lower of OBS in summer 2012 than in 2009, reflecting higher traffic volumes and absence of or lower local OBS emissions due to burning wood, grass and domestic waste in 2012. © 2015, CI and CEQ. All Rights Reserved.

Kovacevic R.,Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor | Jovasevic-Stojanovic M.,Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences | Tasic V.,Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor | Milosevic N.,Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly | Year: 2010

In this paper, the levels of twenty one elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Sr and Zn) in PM10 are presented, as well as SO2 concentration, measured at the sampling site in an urban area of the town of Bor (40,000 inhabitants) in eastern Serbia. The sampling site was located in a densely populated city center about 0.65 km away from one of the largest copper mines and copper smelters in Europe. For the first time PM10 was collected using the European standard sampler, during a preliminary campaign in duration of 7 days in early spring 2009. PM10 were sampled on PTFE membrane filters and element concentrations were quantified by GF AAS and ICP AES. Concentration levels and correlations within trace elements, PM10 and SO2 indicated that industrial activities underpinned with meteorological conditions of low wind speed (calm) are the main factors that influence air pollution in a densely populated area. It was evident that both PM10 mass concentration and SO2 concentration once exceeded the daily limit values during a measuring period of seven days. Strong relationship was found between PM10 and Mn, Mg, Ca and B daily average concentrations. On the other hand, SO2 correlated strongly with As, Pb, Cd, Cu and S daily average concentrations. These results confirm the relationship between emissions of SO2 from the Copper Smelter Bor and calm meteorological conditions (wind speed less than 0.5 m/sec) with the concentration levels of carcinogenic substances of arsenic, lead and cadmium in ambient air.

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