Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Geric Stare B.,University of Ljubljana | Rupnik M.,Institute of Public Health Maribor | Rupnik M.,University of Maribor
Anaerobe | Year: 2010

Clostridium difficile toxinotype XI strains do not produce toxins A (TcdA) or B (TcdB) but do possess a nonfunctional remnant of the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc), bearing part of the sequence for tcdA. This is the first report of a type with absent upstream terminal PaLoc sequences and major genetic rearrangements of the PaLoc region. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lapanje A.,Institute of Physical Biology | Zrimec A.,Institute of Physical Biology | Drobne D.,University of Ljubljana | Rupnik M.,Institute of Public Health Maribor
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

In previous studies we detected lower species richness and lower Hg sensitivity of the bacteria present in egested guts of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) from chronically Hg polluted than from unpolluted environment. Basis for such results were further investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of mercury-resistant (Hgr) isolates and clone libraries. We observed up to 385 times higher numbers of Hgr bacteria in guts of animals from polluted than from unpolluted environment. The majority of Hgr strains contained merA genes. Sequencing of 16S rRNA clones from egested guts of animals from Hg-polluted environments showed elevated number of bacteria from Pseudomonas, Listeria and Bacteroidetes relatives groups. In animals from pristine environment number of bacteria from Achromobacter relatives, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus, Ochrobactrum relatives, Rhizobium/Agrobacterium, Bacillus and Microbacterium groups were elevated. Such bacterial community shifts in guts of animals from Hg-polluted environment could significantly contribute to P. scaber Hg tolerance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zidaric V.,Institute of Public Health Maribor | Beigot S.,Institute of Public Health Maribor | Lapajne S.,Institute of Public Health Maribor | Rupnik Maja M.,Institute of Public Health Maribor | Rupnik Maja M.,University of Maribor
Anaerobe | Year: 2010

Clostridium difficile is mainly associated with nosocomial infections but can be present also in other environments. In this study we compared three methods (culturing with and without ethanol shock and real-time PCR) for detection of C. difficile in water and have used them on a series of river water samples. C. difficile was present in 17 of 25 rivers tested (68.0%) and in 42 of 69 water samples tested (60.9%). Positive sampling sites correlated with increased population densities. Isolates were distributed into 34 PCR ribotypes, of which more than half are present also in humans and animals. PCR ribotype 014 was the predominate type (16.2% of all isolates). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Schneeberg A.,Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses | Rupnik M.,Institute of Public Health Maribor | Rupnik M.,University of Maribor | Neubauer H.,Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses | Seyboldt C.,Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses
Anaerobe | Year: 2012

Clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans. Pet animals and livestock are discussed as potential natural reservoirs and sources of infection. In this study faecal samples from dogs and cats were collected at 10 animal shelters in Thuringia, Germany. C. difficile was isolated from 9 out of 165 (5.5%) canine and 5 out of 135 (3.7%) feline samples. Five PCR ribotypes (010, 014/020, 039, 045, SLO 066) were identified. PCR ribotypes 010 and 014/020 were detected in more than one shelter and PCR ribotypes 014/020 and 045 were isolated from dogs and cats. MLVA profiles of strains of a PCR ribotype from one shelter were identical or closely related, while strains of the same PCR ribotype from different shelters showed significant differences. This study shows that dogs and cats kept in animal shelters are a reservoir of C. difficile PCR ribotypes which can infect also humans. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Rupnik M.,Institute of Public Health Maribor | Rupnik M.,University of Maribor
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Clostridium difficile shows considerable variability in the PaLoc region encoding two main virulence factors, toxins TcdA and TcdB. Strains with changes in PaLoc are defined as variant toxinotypes and currently 27 such groups are recognized (I to XXVII). Toxinotype 0 includes strains with PaLoc identical to the reference laboratory strain VPI 10463. Toxinotyping is a RFLP-PCR-based method using a combination of restriction patterns of part of tcdB and tcdA genes for determination of toxinotype. Variations in PaLoc can affect the toxin production or could result in production of toxins with altered properties. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Discover hidden collaborations