Institute of Public Health IPH

Lahore, Pakistan

Institute of Public Health IPH

Lahore, Pakistan

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Al Mamun M.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Rahman S.M.M.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Turin T.C.,University of Calgary
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of local food items vended by the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka City. A total of 80 schools from 19 school-zones of Dhaka City and its outskirts were chosen for the study. A total of 110 food samples, one each from 110 school-based street food vendors, were collected for laboratory analysis. Face to face interviews were conducted with the food vendors using a pre-tested questionnaire. The food samples were analyzed for coliform counts in the Public Health Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, Dhaka, which is a national level central food testing laboratory in Bangladesh. Microbiological criteria recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) were considered to classify food samples as 'satisfactory' (total coliforms <. 100 per g or ml) and 'unsatisfactory' (total coliforms ≥. 100 per g or ml). Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association of selected socio-demographic characteristics of school-based street food vendors with the presence of unsatisfactory levels of coliforms in their food items. Of the 110 school-based street food samples analyzed in the laboratory, 44% were unsatisfactory. Among different items of street vended foods, 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples were unsatisfactory, while all samples from achar (100%) and ice cream (100%) were found to be satisfactory. Logistic regression models showed that the food samples collected from the vendors belonging to the age group '15-24. years' and the vendors possessing an educational status higher than primary level were less likely to be unsatisfactory, while the food samples collected from the vendors having a daily income of more than 200 Bangladeshi Taka (equivalent to 3.00. USD) were more likely to be unsatisfactory. Our study findings reflected poor microbiological quality for a considerable proportion of the school-based street vended foods indicating a health threat to the school children of Dhaka City. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Sarker M.A.B.,Nagoya University | Harun-Or-Rashid M.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Reyer J.A.,Nagoya University | Hirosawa T.,Nagoya University | And 6 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015

Background: Although Bangladesh has achieved tremendous success in health care over the last four decades, it still lagged behind in the areas of maternal and child malnutrition and primary health care (PHC). To increase access to PHC, the Bangladesh government established approximately 18,000 community clinics (CCs). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of socioeconomic determinants of women aged 12-49 years with the CCs awareness and visitation. Methods: We analyzed secondary data provided by Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2011. A two-stage cluster sampling was used to collect the data. A total of 18,222 ever married women aged 12-49 years were identified from selected households and 17,842 were interviewed. The main outcome measures of our study were awareness and visitation of CCs. Bivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) to examine the associations between the awareness and visiting CCs with socioeconomic determinants. Results: Low prevalence of awareness about CC (18 %) was observed among studied women and only 17 % of them visited CCs. Significant associations (P < 0.05) with CCs awareness and visitation were observed among aged 20-29 years (adjusted OR = 1.18; 95 % CI = 1.03-1.35 and adjusted OR = 1.49; 95 % CI = 1.05-2.11), primary education (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95 % CI = 1.08-1.34 and adjusted OR = 1.37; 95 % CI = 1.05-1.78), and poorest family (adjusted OR = 1.21; 95 % CI = 1.03-1.42 and adjusted OR = 2.36; 95 % CI = 1.56-3.55, respectively), after controlling potential confounders. Conclusions: Awareness and visitation of CCs were found to be positively associated with lower economic conditions, young age, and primary education. Awareness and access to CCs might be increased through community activities that involve health care workers. The government should also lower barriers to PHC access through CCs by providing adequate logistics, such as human resources and equipment. © 2015 Sarker et al.


Sultana F.,Primeasia University | Sultana F.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Kamrunnahar,Primeasia University | Afroz H.,Primeasia University | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions: This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.


PubMed | Institute of Public Health IPH, Yonaha General Hospital, Tokai Central Hospital, Nagoya University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2015

Although Bangladesh has achieved tremendous success in health care over the last four decades, it still lagged behind in the areas of maternal and child malnutrition and primary health care (PHC). To increase access to PHC, the Bangladesh government established approximately 18,000 community clinics (CCs). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of socioeconomic determinants of women aged 12-49 years with the CCs awareness and visitation.We analyzed secondary data provided by Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2011. A two-stage cluster sampling was used to collect the data. A total of 18,222 ever married women aged 12-49 years were identified from selected households and 17,842 were interviewed. The main outcome measures of our study were awareness and visitation of CCs. Bivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to examine the associations between the awareness and visiting CCs with socioeconomic determinants.Low prevalence of awareness about CC (18 %) was observed among studied women and only 17 % of them visited CCs. Significant associations (P < 0.05) with CCs awareness and visitation were observed among aged 20-29 years (adjusted OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03-1.35 and adjusted OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.05-2.11), primary education (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.08-1.34 and adjusted OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.05-1.78), and poorest family (adjusted OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.03-1.42 and adjusted OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.56-3.55, respectively), after controlling potential confounders.Awareness and visitation of CCs were found to be positively associated with lower economic conditions, young age, and primary education. Awareness and access to CCs might be increased through community activities that involve health care workers. The government should also lower barriers to PHC access through CCs by providing adequate logistics, such as human resources and equipment.


PubMed | Public Health England, Institute of Public Health IPH, Hacettepe University, ECDC and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2015

The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.


Gillet P.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Mukadi P.,Institute National Of Recherche Biomedicale Inrb | Vernelen K.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Van Esbroeck M.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

Background. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are increasingly used as a tool for the diagnosis of malaria, both in endemic and in non-endemic settings. The present study reports the results of an external quality assessment (EQA) session on RDTs in a non-endemic setting. Methods. After validation of antigen stability during shipment at room temperature, three clinical samples and a questionnaire were sent to clinical laboratories in Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg using malaria RDTs. Participants were asked to report the results of the RDTs as observations (visibility of the RDT control and test lines) and interpretations (report as formulated to the clinician). In addition, participants were invited to fill in a questionnaire on the place of RDTs in the diagnostic strategy of malaria. Results. A total of 128/133 (96.2%) of clinical laboratories using RDTs participated. Six three-band and one four-band RDT brands were used. Analytical errors were rare and included (i) not recognizing invalid RDT results (1.6%) and (ii) missing the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (0.8%). Minor errors were related to RDT test result interpretation and included (i) reporting "RDT positive" without species identification in the case of P. falciparum and non-falciparum species (16.9% and 6.5% respectively) and (ii) adding incorrect comments to the report (3.2%). Some of these errors were related to incorrect RDT package insert instructions such as (i) not reporting the possibility of mixed species infection in the case of P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax (35.5% and 18.5% respectively) and (ii) the interpretation of P. vivax instead of non-falciparum species at the presence of a pan-species antigen line (4.0%). According to the questionnaire, 48.8% of participants processed 20 requests for malaria diagnosis in 2009. During opening hours, 93.6% of 125 participants used RDTs as an adjunct to microscopy but outside opening hours, nearly one third of 113 participants relied on RDTs as the primary (4.4%) or the single tool (25.7%) for malaria diagnosis. Conclusion. In this non-endemic setting, errors in RDT performance were mainly related to RDT test line interpretations, partly due to incorrect package insert instructions. The reliance on RDTs as the primary or the single tool for the diagnosis of malaria outside opening hours is of concern and should be avoided. © 2010 Gillet et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sarker M.A.B.,Nagoya University | Rahman M.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Harun-Or-Rashid M.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Hossain S.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine NIPSOM | And 3 more authors.
Tobacco Induced Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Several studies in the past have reported inconclusive evidences on association of smoking and migraine. Nevertheless, no study so far reported association of smokeless tobacco with migraine. The objective of this study was to examine the association of smoked and smokeless tobacco use with migraine. Methods. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted at the neurology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We enrolled 138 migraine cases diagnosed during March-September 2010 in neurology outpatient department, and 276 gender and age matched healthy controls from among their attendants. Diagnosis of migraine was based on the International Headache Society criteria. Use of smokeless tobacco and smoking (cigarette/bidi/hukka) were determined by an interviewer administered questionnaire. Results: Among the cases, 52.9% were overall tobacco users; 24.6% were only smokers, 15.9% only smokeless tobacco users and 12.3% used both. The respective figures among controls were 14.5%, 7.2%, 6.9% and 0.4% (P <0.001 for all). The conditional logistic regression analysis found that migraine had higher odds of exposure to smoked tobacco use, smokeless tobacco use, and both compared to control after adjusting for confounding variables (alcohol drinking, insufficient sleep, mental stress, and number of family members); adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 6.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-19.6, P = 0.001), 5.8 (95%CI = 1.9-17.4, P = 0.001), and 54.2 (95%CI = 4.3-684.4, P = 0.002), respectively. The aOR of cigarette/bidi/hukka smoking for different doses was 5.5 (95%CI = 1.2-24.8, P = 0.027) for 1-5 times per day, 6.3 (95%CI = 1.8-21.2, P = 0.003) for 6-10 times per day, and 6.7 (95%CI = 1.9-23.2, P = 0.003) for >10 times per day relative to non users. Conclusions: Both smoked and smokeless tobaccos were found to be associated with migraine. There is a need to incorporate smokeless tobacco along with smoked tobacco into the anti-tobacco awareness programs to reduce the burden of migraine in Bangladesh. © 2013 Sarker et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Khan L.K.,Akhter Mubarik Referral Center | Sethi S.M.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Kokab F.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Qureshi A.,Sir Ganga Ram Hospital
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5± 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention.


Das S.,Charuchandra College | Anjeza C.,Institute of Public Health IPH | Mandal S.,Charuchandra College
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2012

Traditionally the people of India have a long-standing practice of using wide variety of herbal products in treatment of diseases or as preservatives in foods. Spices are indispensable components of Indian cuisines since ancient times. Spices are considered as rich source of bio-active antimicrobial compounds. The disc diffusion and MIC bioassays were performed with some selected Indian spices and herbs against some entero-pathogenic, probiotic or food-spoiler microbes. Widest inhibition zones (12-14 mm DIZ) were seen in cases of aqueous extracts of fenugreek, mustard and henna. Gram positive bacteria were more prone to these spices or herbal extracts than Gram negative bacteria and fungus. Klebsiella pneumonie and Aspergillus niger were the most resistant microbes while Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were most susceptible strains. Combinations of the spices in several cases demonstrated synergistic or additive effect. No antagonistic effect was seen. Cumin and fenugreek or Black cumin and mustard combinations demonstrated higher synergistic antimicrobial effects.

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